HD 115 Chapter 13 - HD 115 Chapter 13 Emotional Social...

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HD 115 Chapter 13 Emotional & Social Development in Middle Childhood Erikson’s Theory: Industry versus Inferiority - Industry versus inferiority: the psychological conflict in M.C. that is resolved positively when experiences lead kids 2 develop a sense of competence at useful skills & tasks o Improved cognitive and physical capacities means adults impose new demands and kids are ready 2 meet these challenges & benefit from them - In school kids become aware of their own and others’ capacities o The danger of this stage is inferiority , the sad pessimism of kids who have little confidence in their ability 2 do things well - This sense of industy comes from several development in M.C.: positive realistic self-concept, pride in accomplishment, moral responsibility, cooperative participation Self-Understanding - Several changes take place in M.C. o Kids start describing them in psychological terms o They start comparing their characteristics against those of their peers o They speculate about the causes of their strengths & weaknesses Self Concept - Kids dev a more refined me-self (self-concept); observations of behaviors & internal states are organized into general dispositions (major change b/w 8 -11) - Kids make social comparisons: judging their appearance, abilities, behavior in relation to those of others Cognitive, Social, & Cultural Influences on Self-Concept - Cog dev affects the changing structure of the self - Kids gain a clearer understanding of traits as linked 2 specific desires and as causes of behavior - Changing content of self-concept is a product of cog ish and feedback from others o Perspective taking skills are crucial for dev a self-concept based on personality traits - The content of self-concept varies from culture 2 culture o I.e. Asian parents stress harmonious interdependence where as Western rents emphasize separateness and self-assertion o In China & Japan, the self is defined in relation 2 a social group whereas in USA the self becomes property of a self-contained individual
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Self-Esteem - Self-esteem differentiates and adjusts to a more realistic level A Hierarchically Structured Self-Esteem - 4 separate esteems: academic, social, Physical/Athletic competence, physical appearance o Each does not contribute equally; during childhood & adolescence, perceived physical appearance correlates more strongly w/ overall self- worth than does any other esteem Changes in Level of Self-Esteem - Self-esteem drops during the 1 st dew years of elementary school o Kids performances are frequently judged in relation to those of others o Kids are also cognitively capable of social comparison - To protect their self-worth, kids balance social comparisons w/ personal achievement goals; this is why the early drop in self-esteem isn’t that harmful - From 4 th – 6 th grade it tends 2 rise 4 the majority of kids o Individual differences in self-esteem become ↑ stable from childhood 2 adolescence Influences on Self-Esteem - Academic self-esteem predicts how important/useful kids will judge subjects to
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