Biology Exam 2 Review

Biology Exam 2 Review - Biology Exam 2 Review Chapter 4...

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Biology Exam 2 Review Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function 1. What all cells have in common: a. Plasma membrane which (1)encloses cell and (2)controls its interaction with the environment and (3)regulates the flow of materials in and out of the cell b. Cytoplasm is where metabolic activities take place c. DNA is hereditary blueprint and RNA copies the blueprint d. All cells obtain nutrients and energy from their environment 2. Prokaryotic Cells (form BACTERIA AND ARCHAEA) a. Very small with stiff cell walls b. Single circular chromosome consisting of a long strand of DNA c. Lacks nuclei and membrane enclosed organelles d. Have PLASMIDS (small DNA rings that carry genes) 3. Eukaryotic Cells (Protests, Fungi, Animal, and Plants) a. Larger then prokaryotic cells b. Cyto-skeleton provides shape, support, and movement made up of protein fibers c. Nucleus contains the (1) nuclear envelope that allows smaller molecules like ATP to pass through (2) Chromatic which is where copes of protein blueprints on DNA are sent (3) Nucleolus which is the site of ribosome synthesis d. Cytoplasm is made up of many organelle membranes that all work together i. Vesicles are membrane sacs that carry membranes around ii. Proteins are embedded in the membranes that say where the proteins need to go iii. Endoplasmic Reticulum contains enzymes that can synthesize various lipids 1. Smooth ER manufactures large amounts of lipids and are abundant in liver cells
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2. Rough ER is the site of protein synthesis iv. Golgi Apparatus SORTS, CHEMICALLY ALTERS, AND PACKAGES important molecules 1. Adds carbohydrates to proteins to make (1)GLYCOPROTEINS and break proteins into smaller particles (2) PEPTIDES 2. Separates proteins and lipids 3. Packages finished molecules into vesicles v. Antibodies (secreted proteins) are produced by white blood cells and are glycoprotein’s that break down foreign intruders vi. Lysosomes act as the cells digestive system vii. Vacuoles are sacs of cell membranes that store/regulate water 1. Contractile vacuoles are in protests (freshwater) 2. Central vacuoles are in plant cells and store sugars and amino acids that are not intended for immediate use viii. Mitochondria (stored NRG ATP) 1. Chloroplast capture energy directly from sunlight and stores as sugar molecules Chapter 5 Membrane Structure and Its Function 1. There are various types of proteins in membranes a. Receptor protein triggers cellular responses upon binding specific molecules b. Recognition proteins serve as identification tags on cell surface c. Enzymes speed up cellular reactions that synthesize or break apart biological molecules d. Attachment proteins anchor cell membranes to cytoskeleton and proteins
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Biology Exam 2 Review - Biology Exam 2 Review Chapter 4...

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