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HD 115 Chapter 14

HD 115 Chapter 14 - HD 115 Chapter 14 Physical Development...

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HD 115 Chapter 14 Physical Development in Adolescence Jay Graydon – After the love has gone - Adolescence: the transition b/w childhood and emerging adulthood - Beginning of A is marked by puberty (mad biological events leading 2 an adult- size body and sexual maturity) Concepts of Adolescence - Both biological & social forces explain why adolescents are self-conscious, argumentative, & in retreat from family activities The Biological Perspective - G. Hall describes A as a cascade of instinctual passions ; this period resembles the one in which human humans evolved from savages to civilized beings - Freud called A the genital stage; instinctual drives shift 2 the genital region resulting in psychological conflict and unpredictable behavior The Social Perspective - Emotional turbulence in not a routine feature of A - There is a wide variability in adolescent adjustment (i.e. islands of Samoa) o Mead showed that greater attention must be paid 2 social & cultural influences for A dev 2 be understood A Balanced Point of View - A is a product of both bio and social forces - A is commonly divided in 3 phases (at least in industrialized nations) o Early – 11 or 12 to 14 o Middle – 14 to 16 o Late – 16 to 18 Puberty: The Physical Transition to Adulthood - Pubertal growth is regulated by hormonal processes that are genetically influenced; girls reach puberty on average 2 years earlier than boys Hormonal Changes - These changes are underway by age 8 or 9 - Secretions of GH & thyroxine ↑ and this leads 2 mad gains in body size and skeletal maturity - Sexual maturation is controlled by sex hormones: both estrogens & androgens are present in boys & girls but in different amounts
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- Testosterone leads to muscle growth, body & facial hair, & other male characteristics; estrogen causes breast, uterus and vagina 2 mature, the body 2 take on female proportions and accumulate fat - Pubertal changes are of 2 types: overall body growth & maturation of sexual characteristics Body Growth - Growth spurt: the first outward sign of puberty; rapid gain in height & weight; for girls, it’s underway around 10 and for boys around 12.5 - Growth in body size is complete for girls around 16 and for boys 17.5 o At their peak, boys add about 4 inches and 26 lbs in a year and girls add 3.5 inches and 20 lbs Body Proportions - Cephalocaudal trend reverses; first hands, legs and feet and then the torso o This is why early adolescents appear awkward and out of proportion - Sex differences in body proportions are due to action of sex hormones o Boys shoulders broaden relative 2 their hips and vice versa 4 girls o Boys also end up considerably larger by they have 2 extra years of preadolescent growth (when the legs are growing fastest) Muscle-Fat Makeup - While girls accumulate fat on their arms, legs, trunk, boys arm & leg fat ↓ - Muscle growth in boys is 150% greater; they also have a higher red blood cell count Motor Development and Physical Activity - Girls gains are gradual whereas boys show a dramatic spurt in strength, speed, & endurance -
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