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Photosynthesis lab report.pdf - LAB 9. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND...

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LAB 9. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATIONLEARNING OUTCOMESBy the end of this lab, students should be able to:1.Explain the importance of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in living organisms.2.Identify the effect of different substrates, temperature and pH on cellular respiration.3.Explain the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration in a closed system.4.Apply the concepts of photosynthesis and cellular respiration to food web dynamics.INTRODUCTIONPhotosynthesisandAerobic cellular respirationare related processes. Photosynthesis is performed byautotrophic organisms that have the ability to convert light energy into chemical energy, storing thisenergy in a molecule of glucose. Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast. The transformation ofglucose into a form of quickly usable energy (ATP) is accomplished through cellular respiration and isperformed by autotrophs and heterotrophs equally. Aerobic cellular respiration occurs in thecytoplasm and in the mitochondria.The glucose produced by autotrophs (plants, many photosynthetic protists, and cyanobacteria)through the process of photosynthesis can be either used or stored.To use it, they must firsttransform it into a usable form of energy currency known as Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP.Thetransformation of glucose into ATP takes place in the cytoplasm and mitochondria (in eukaryotic cellsonly) through the process of cellular respiration.Heterotrophs (many protists, all fungi and animals) do not perform photosynthesis. Instead, theyobtain their energy by absorbing or ingesting autotrophs either directly (eating plants or algae) orindirectly (consumption of another heterotroph that ate plants or algae).Once a heterotroph ingestsits food, and after the process of breaking it down to a molecular level (digestion), glucose molecules,as with autotrophs, will either be used or stored. As before, the glucose is transformed into usableenergy in the form of ATP through the process of cellular respiration.The following equations summarize both processes. Note thatbothautotrophs and heterotrophsundergo cellular respiration, but only autotrophs perform photosynthesis.(Autotrophs only)CO2+ H2O + sunlightGlucose + O2andGlucose + O2CO2+ H2O + ATPPhotosynthesisCellular Respiration(Autotrophs and Heterotrophs)1
When cellular respiration is running at maximum efficiency, about 60% of the energy stored in glucoseis released as heat and the other 40% is used to drive the synthesis of ATP (from ADP). Comparing theequations for photosynthesis and respiration reveals that the two processes are closely related; theproducts (end results) of one process are the reactants (starting materials) for the other process.USING PH AS A TOOL TO MEASURE CO2.

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