sleeplectureoutline[1]

sleeplectureoutline[1] - Ch. 14 Lecture 13 3/5/08...

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1 Sleep, Dreaming & Circadian Rhythms Ch. 14 Lecture 13 3/5/08 Lecture Outline Characteristics of sleep Theories of sleep Sleep disorders Brain areas involved in sleep Still don’t know… Why we sleep? How exactly brain produces sleep All species “sleep” • Occurs in all mammals, but with LOTS of variation • E.g. Brown bats = 20 hrs; Giraffes = < 2 hrs • Unique to vertebrates? • No: invertebrates like honeybees and crayfish ‘sleep’ • Even fruit flies! Baboons: Avg. 9.6 hrs * Not that different from human sleep * Fruit Flies, Humans and Sleep Extensive work on fruit flies: • "They rest for 10 hours a night, and if you keep them awake longer, they need to sleep more," said Dr. Tononi, a psychiatrist at University of Wisconsin. • Humans & Fruit Flies both produce Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) NY-Times article Nov. 8, 2005 *This is called a comparative approach*
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2 All species “sleep” Human sleep varies with age Newborns = average 16 hrs/24 hr cycle Steady decline through life Psychophysical measurement of sleep 1) EEG – characteristic brain waves during sleep 2) EOG – electro-oculogram; measure rapid eye movements (REMs) 3) EMG – electromyogram; measure muscle tone Sleep stages Stages 1- 4 : non-rapid eye mvmt sleep (NREM) Progress through stages: 1 = most similar to wakefulness; low amp, high frequency * 4 = highest amplitude, lowest frequency * Stages 3-4 : Slow wave sleep (SWS); large delta waves appear * * = Measured by EEG
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3 EEG patterns during sleep (fig. 14.2) Delta waves K complex = Large - peak, followed by large + peak. Sleep spindle = 1-2 s. wax & wane of 12-14 Hz activity. Alpha = 8-12 Hz Delta = 1-2 Hz REM sleep • Looks like stage 1 sleep • Eyes moving (but closed) • Lack of muscle tone = atonia • Increased blood flow to brain • Dreaming (more than other stages) REM sleep varies with age Newborns = 50% (8 hours) Young adults = 20-25% % stablizes ~ 10 years Begins to decline ~ 60 years REM Sleep and Dreaming 80% of awakenings from REM yield reports of story- like dreams (7% NREM) External stimuli may be incorporated into dreams Dreams run on real time Everyone dreams Penile erections are not a result of erotic dreams Sleepwalking and talking are less likely to occur while dreaming (usually occur during Stage 4 sleep)
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSYC 2 taught by Professor Wilson during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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sleeplectureoutline[1] - Ch. 14 Lecture 13 3/5/08...

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