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Unformatted text preview: Midterm Review Sheet Fall 2007 HDEV 307I I. What is a Child? Creation of Childhood Postman : Discovered or invented? What led to the rise of the concept of the child? Romans expanded schooling, shame protect children and behaving appropriately. What led to the disappearance of the concept of the child in the middle ages? (Literacy, education, shame) Northern Barbarians/Middle ages a. Literacy: oral/spoken= no need for literacy . Alphabet was changed and no longer understandable. Calligraphy social literacy (reading) disappeared. Paper was hard to produce. Church control. b. Education: disappeared c. Shame: shared everything, no limits: disappeared. What led to the rise of childhood after the middle ages? Printing press created concept of adulthood (reading competent vs. incompetent). What may once again lead to the disappearance of childhood and why? T.V. because there is zero interaction, literacy encouragement, no instructions to understand, no complex demands, no segregation of audience, changes self image (the in brands of clothing and makeup). Childrens Culture Zelizer : Both sides of Child Labor. (Neither side wanted extreme) Economic confrontation: pay children cheaper wages loss of jobs for adults. Easily controlled and good workers. Children contributing to family income. Legal Dispute: zero laws or regulations. Dangerous jobs: mining. Moral Revolution: Pro : protecting them b/c idle hands are the devils playground. They learn responsibilities and self-control. Robs children of hard work opportunities. Keeps children busy. Anti (opportunists): hypocrisy, misguided economic opportunism. Giroux Loss of Innocence a. Political Opportunism: Exploitation: Appealed to general masses of people by showing compassion for children (the future generation). 1 Midterm Review Sheet Fall 2007 HDEV 307I b. Moral Panics: Sexualization: Childrens beauty pageants, and modeling/action viewed as normal. [Attracts pedophiles because little girls are used as sex symbols] c. Marketing: Commodification: Children are commodities b/c they are innocent, pure and cannot lie consumers respond to and trust this buy product d. Few places w/o Marketing: Commercialization: cereal boxes Why do pageants exist? Easily adapted, viewed as normal, cash prizes (college tuition), entire industry employs 100s of people (voice coaches, hair, makeup, dress makers, photos... etc) How try to legitimate them? Mothers are involved = family time. Created competition, builds confidence, self esteem, able to win scholarships, stepping stone into womanhood and teaches how to be grown-up Problems with legitimacy arguments: everything is based on appearance (if loses bad self image), creates false idea/sense of adulthood and confidence, superficial....
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- Fall '07