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Unformatted text preview: 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science Boundless Political Science American Politics Forms of Government … 1/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science Forms of Government Forms of government are categorized by the power source and power structure of any given state. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Compare and contrast the various forms of government KEY TAKEAWAYS Key Points Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. States are … 2/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science served by a continuous succession of di erent governments. Governments with Aristarchy attributes are traditionally ruled by the “best” people. Examples include aristocracy, technocracy and meritocracy. Governments with autocratic attributes are ruled by one person who has all the power over the people in a country. Examples include authoritarian, totalitarian and fascist governments. Governments with democratic attributes are most common in the Western world and in some countries of the east. In democracies, all of the people in a country can vote during elections for representatives or political parties that they prefer. Governments with monarchic attributes are ruled by a king or a queen who inherits their position from their family, which is often called the royal family. Governments with oligarchic attributes are ruled by a small group of powerful and/or in uential people. These people may spread power equally or not equally. Plutocracy de nes a society or a system ruled and dominated by the small minority of the wealthiest citizens. Unlike systems such as democracy, capitalism, socialism or anarchism, plutocracy is not rooted in an established political philosophy and has no formal advocates. Key Terms … 3/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science government: The body with the power to make and/or enforce laws to control a country, land area, people or organization. state: A political division of a federation retaining a degree of autonomy, for example one of the fty United States. See also Province. Government Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. A form of government, or form of state governance, refers to the set of political institutions by which a government of a state is organized (synonyms include “regime type” and “system of government”). Governments consist of two broad interplaying elements that generally determine how a government is coded: the power source and the power structure. Power source refers to the individuals and institutions that exercise governing authority over a state and the means by which they obtain their power, while power structure refers to the system by which they are organized. In the case of its broad de nition, government normally consists of legislators, administrators, and arbitrators. Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. States are served by a continuous succession of di erent governments. Each successive government is composed of a body of individuals who control and exercise control over political decision-making. Their function is to make and enforce laws and arbitrate con icts. In some societies, this group is often a selfperpetuating or hereditary class. In other societies, such as democracies, the political roles remain, but there is frequent turnover of the people actually lling the positions. … 4/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science Countries of the World, by Type of Government in 2011: This map shows all the countries of the word, colored according to their type of government. Blue represents full presidential republics, while green and yellow are presidential republics with less powerful presidents. Orange represents parliamentary republics. Red and pink are parliamentary constitutional monarchies, and purple represents absolute monarchies. Brown represents single-party republics, green shows countries where government has been suspended (e.g., military dictatorships), and grey countries do not t any of the above categories. Forms of Government Governments with Aristarchy attributes are traditionally ruled by the “best” people. Aristocracy refers to the rule by elite citizens; a system of governance in which a person who rules in an aristocracy is an aristocrat. It has come to mean rule by “the aristocracy” who are people of noble birth. A meritocracy refers to rule by the meritorious; a system of governance where groups are selected on the basis of people’s ability, knowledge in a given area, and contributions to society. Finally, a technocracy refers to rule by the educated; a system of governance where people who are skilled or pro cient govern in their respective areas of expertise in technology would be in control of all decision making. Doctors, engineers, scientists, professionals and technologists who have knowledge, expertise, or skills, would compose the governing body, instead of politicians, businessmen, and economists. … 5/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science Governments with autocratic attributes are ruled by one person who has all the power over the people in a country. The Roman Republic made Dictators to lead during times of war. In modern times, an Autocrat’s rule is not stopped by any rules of law, constitutions, or other social and political institutions. After World War II, many governments in Latin America, Asia, and Africa were ruled by autocratic governments. Governments with democratic attributes are most common in the Western world and in some countries of the east. In democracies, all of the people in a country can vote during elections for representatives or political parties that they prefer. The people in democracies can elect representatives who will sit on legislatures such as the Parliament or Congress. Political parties are organizations of people with similar ideas about how a country or region should be governed. Di erent political parties have di erent ideas about how the government should handle di erent problems. Democracy is the government of the people, by the people, for the people. Governments with monarchic attributes are ruled by a king or a queen who inherits their position from their family, which is often called the “royal family. ” There are at two opposing types of monarchies: absolute monarchies and constitutional monarchies. In an absolute monarchy, the ruler has no limits on their wishes or powers. In a constitutional monarchy a ruler’s powers are limited by a document called a constitution. Governments with oligarchic attributes are ruled by a small group of powerful and/or in uential people. These people may spread power equally or not equally. An oligarchy is di erent from a true democracy because very few people are given the chance to change things. An oligarchy does not have to be hereditary or monarchic. An oligarchy does not have one clear ruler, but several powerful people. Some historical examples of oligarchy are the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and … 6/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science Apartheid in South Africa. Fictional oligarchic examples include the dystopian society of Oceania displayed in the book Nineteen Eighty-Four, the stratocracy government of Starship Troopers, and the kritarchic “Street Judges” of Judge Dredd. Democratic Governments Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that a ect their lives. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Discuss the central elements of direct and representative democracies KEY TAKEAWAYS Key Points Democracy allows people to participate equally —either directly or through elected representatives—in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. It encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political selfdetermination. A democratic government contrasts to forms of government where power is either held by one, as in a monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy or aristocracy. … 7/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science Direct democracy is a form of democracy in which people vote on policy initiatives directly. This is di erent from a representative democracy, in which people vote for representatives who then vote on policy initiatives. Representative democracy is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected people representing a group of people. For example, three countries which use representative democracy are the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and Poland. The concept of representative democracy arose largely from ideas and institutions that developed during the European Middle Ages, the Age of Enlightenment, and the American and French Revolutions. Key Terms direct democracy: Direct democracy is a form of democracy in which people vote on policy initiatives directly, as opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives who then vote on policy initiatives. Depending on the particular system in use, it might entail passing executive decisions, making laws, directly electing or dismissing o cials and conducting trials. Two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. representative democracy: Representative democracy is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected people representing a group of people. … 8/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science democracy: A government under the direct or representative rule of the people of its jurisdiction. Introduction Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that a ect their lives. Democracy allows people to participate equally—either directly or through elected representatives—in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. It encompasses social, economic, and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination. The term originates from the Greek word: δημοκρατία (dēmokratía), which translates to “rule of the people”. This term was used around 400 BCE to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens. A democratic government contrasts two forms of government where power is either held by one, as in a monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy or aristocracy. Nevertheless, these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic, oligarchic, and monarchic elements. Several variants of democracy exist, but there are two basic forms, both of which concern how the whole body of citizens executes its will: direct democracy and representative democracy. … 9/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science French Presidential Election: A woman casts her vote in the second round of the French presidential election of 2007. Direct Democracy Direct democracy is a form of democracy in which people vote on policy initiatives directly. This is di erent from a representative democracy, in which people vote for representatives who then vote on policy initiatives. Depending on the particular system in use, it might entail passing executive decisions, making laws, directly electing or dismissing o cials, and conducting trials. Two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. The earliest known direct democracy is said to be the Athenian Democracy in the 5th century BCE, although it was not an inclusive democracy; women, foreigners, and slaves were excluded from it. In the direct democracy of Athens, the electorate did not nominate representatives to vote on legislation and executive bills on their behalf (as in the United States Congress), but instead voted on these items in their own right. Participation was by no means open, but the in-group of participants was constituted with no reference to economic class … 10/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science and they participated on a large scale. The public opinion of voters was remarkably in uenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters. Also relevant is the history of Roman republic, beginning circa 449 BCE. The ancient Roman Republic’s “citizen lawmaking”— citizen formulation and passage of law, as well as citizen veto of legislature-made law—began about 449 BCE and lasted the approximately 400 years to the death of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE. Modern-era citizen lawmaking began in the towns of Switzerland in the 13th century CE. In 1847, the Swiss added the “statute referendum” to their national constitution. Currently in Switzerland, single majorities are su cient at the town, city, and canton level, but at the national level, double majorities are required on constitutional matters. The intent of the double majorities is simply to ensure any citizen-made law’s legitimacy. Swiss Assemblies: Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus, May 7, 2006, Switzerland. Representative Democracy … 11/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science Direct democracy was very much opposed by the framers of the United States Constitution and some signatories of the Declaration of Independence. They saw a danger in majorities forcing their will on minorities. As a result, they advocated a representative democracy in the form of a constitutional republic over a direct democracy. For example, James Madison, in Federalist No. 10, advocates a constitutional republic over direct democracy precisely to protect the individual from the will of the majority. Representative democracy is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected people representing a group of people. For example, three countries which use representative democracy are the United States of America (a representative democracy), the United Kingdom (a constitutional monarchy) and Poland (a republic). It is an element of both the parliamentary system and presidential system of government and is typically used in a lower chamber such as the House of Commons (UK) or Bundestag (Germany). Democracy in the Contemporary World According to Freedom House, in 2007 there were 123 electoral democracies – up from 40 in 1972. According to World Forum on Democracy, electoral democracies now represent 120 of the 192 existing countries and constitute 58.2 percent of the world’s population. At the same time, liberal democracies—countries Freedom House regards as free and respectful of basic human rights and the rule of law—are 85 in number and represent 38 percent of the global population. In 2010 the United Nations declared September 15 the International Day of Democracy. Non-Democratic Governments: Authoritarianism, Totalitarianism, and Dictatorship Unlike democracy, authoritarianism and totalitarianism are forms … 12/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science of government where an individual or a single-party concentrates all power. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Discuss the central features and types of undemocratic governments KEY TAKEAWAYS Key Points An authoritarian government is characterized by highly concentrated and centralized power maintained by political repression and the exclusion of potential challengers. It uses political parties and mass organizations to mobilize people around the goals of the regime. An autocracy is a system of government in which a supreme political power is concentrated in the hands of one person; by contrast, a single-party state is a type of party system government in which no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. Totalitarianism is an extreme version of authoritarianism – it is a political system where the state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever necessary. A dictatorship (government without people’s consent ) is a contrast to democracy … 13/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science (government whose power comes from people) and totalitarianism (government controls every aspect of people’s life) opposes pluralism (government allows multiple lifestyles and opinions). A dictatorship is de ned as an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by an individual: a dictator. In contemporary usage, dictatorship refers to an autocratic form of absolute rule by leadership unrestricted by law, constitutions, or other political factors in the state. Key Terms Autocratic: Of or pertaining to autocracy or to an autocrat; absolute; holding independent and arbitrary powers of government. Introduction Authoritarianism is a form of social organization characterized by submission to authority as well as the administration of said authority. In politics, an authoritarian government is characterized by highly concentrated and centralized power maintained by political repression and the exclusion of potential challengers. It uses political parties and mass organizations to mobilize people around the goals of the regime. Authoritarianism emphasizes arbitrary law rather than the rule of law, including election rigging and political decisions being made by a select group of o cials behind closed doors. Authoritarianism is marked by “inde nite political tenure” of an autocratic state or a ruling-party state. An autocracy is a system of government in which a supreme political power is concentrated in the hands of one person, … 14/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control. By contrast, a single-party state is a type of party system government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. Typically, single-party states hold the suppression of political factions, except as transitory issue oriented currents within the single party or permanent coalition as a self-evident good. The Communist Party of China’s single-party rule of the People’s Republic of China is a prominent contemporary example. Communist Party of China: XVII Congress of the Communist Party of China held in 2007. Totalitarianism Totalitarianismis an extreme version of authoritarianism. Authoritarianism primarily di ers from totalitarianism in that social and economic institutions exist free from governmental control. By contrast, totalitarianism is a political system where the state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever necessary. The term ‘an authoritarian regime’ denotes a state in which the single power holder – an individual ‘dictator,’ a committee or a junta or an otherwise small group of political elite – monopolizes political power. However, a totalitarian regime attempts to control virtually all aspects of the social life, including economy, education, art, science, private life, and morals of citizens. The concept became prominent in Western anti-communist political discourse during … 15/23 1/22/2020 Forms of Government | Boundless Political Science the Cold War era in order to highlight perceived similarities between Nazi Germany and other fascist regimes on the one hand, and Soviet communism on the other. Political scientists Carl Friedrich and Zbigniew Brzezinski were primarily responsible for expanding the usage of the term in university social science and professional research, reformulating it as a paradigm for the Soviet Union as well as fascist regimes. For Friedrich and Br...
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