HD 115 Chapter 15 - HD 115 Chapter 15 Cognitive Development...

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HD 115 Chapter 15 Cognitive Development In Adolescence Piaget’s Theory: The Formal Operational Stage - Formal operational stage: kids develop the capacity 4 abstract, scientific thinking o They can “operate on operations” Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning - When faced w/ a problem, they start w/ a general theory of all possible factors that might affect the outcome and deduce specific hypotheses about what might happen; they then test them to see which ones work o Piaget’s pendulum problem Propositional Thought - Adolescents can evaluate the logic of verbal statements w/o referring 2 real world circumstances - Piaget acknowledged the importance of language in cog dev during adolescence Follow-Up Research on Formal Operational Thought - Does abstract reasoning appear earlier than Piaget expected & do all reach formal operation during teen years? Are Children Capable of Abstract Thinking? - School age kids know that hypotheses need supporting evidence and that they can predict future events, however, kids cant sort out evidence that bears on 3 or more variables at once - Their capacity 4 propositional thought is limited; they have difficulty reasoning from premises that contradict reality or their own beliefs (i.e. dogs bigger than elephants and elephants are bigger than mice, then dogs are bigger than mice) o They fail 2 grasp logical necessity – that accuracy of conclusions drawn from premises rests on rules of logic and not on real world info Do All Individuals reach the Formal Operational Stage? - About 40-60% of college students fail Piaget’s problems - Formal operations don’t emerge in all contexts at once; its specific 2 situation & task - Adults & adolescents may be capable of it but they often fall back on less demanding intuitive judgments - But, in some tribal villages, formal operational tasks are not mastered AT ALL
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An Information Processing View of Adolescent Cognitive Development Consequences of Abstract Thought Argumentativeness - Teens can marshal facts and ideas to build a case - By proposing, justifying, criticizing, defending a variety of solutions, adolescents move 2 higher level of understanding Self-Consciousness and Self-Focusing - Adolescents begin thinking about themselves more; 2 distorted images
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HD 115 Chapter 15 - HD 115 Chapter 15 Cognitive Development...

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