Congressional Reconstruction begins 1866 = Led by Radical Republicans= Although the political viewpoints of "radicals" came in many shades and they often disagreed about important national issues, from the 1866 electionson, a Radical Republican was any member of Congress committed to destroying the institution of slavery and to guaranteeing some kind of civil rights for African-Americans.LegislationJan. 13th– outlaws slavery. June 14th– ratified 1868. includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. It requires the states to provide equal protection under the law to allpersons (not only to citizens) within their jurisdictions.15th amendment ratified 1870. grants voting rights regardless of race NOT SEX. 1872, election after 14th amendment passed, woman in Missouri tries to vote. 1874 Minor v. Happersettin Supreme Court rules unanimously 9-0 that women can’t vote, rules in favor of Missouri. Voting is not a right of citizenship, it’s a privilege provided by the state who can determine voting by gender. Women have to agitate for change in state and federal laws. Being a citizen does not imply right to vote. Assumption that voting will make women equal. Other Legislation in response to Black Codes= Laws passed by southern states that defined the rights of former slaves and addressed black–white relationships. In general, these laws generally discriminated on racial grounds. (The Black Codes of the 1860s are not the same as the Jim Crow laws, but were enacted in 1865 directly after the Civil War; whereas, the Jim Crow era began in 1890.) Forced freemen to be 2nd class citizens, viewed by the north as quasi-slavery. Denied voting rights.In response to Black Codes Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, to create and protect black civil rights in the South. This led to a decisive break with President Andrew Johnson, who vetoed the bill. Congress overrode his veto and the bill became law. Included in these were the rights to: make contracts, sue, witness in court, and own private property. PresidentAndrew Johnson vetoed the bill, saying that blacks were not qualified for United States citizenship and that the bill would "operate in favor of the colored and against the white race." The Republicans in Congress overrode the presidential veto on April 9, 1866. The act declared that all persons born 1
in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition, excluding Indians not taxed. Congress also created Freedmen’s Bureau= A federal agency created in 1865 to supervise newly freed people. It oversaw relations between whites and blacks in the South, issued food rations, and supervised labor contracts. Bureau supervised all relief and educationalactivities relating torefugees and freedmen, including issuing rations, clothingand medicine.