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GenEd test 2 review sheet - Minoan named after King Minos...

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Minoan named after King Minos, legendary king of Crete. earliest civilization in Aegean region emerged on the large island of Crete, southeast of the Greek mainland. Bronze Age civilization established by 2800 BCE. Rich and prosperous culture, huge palace unearthed at Knossus, the Minoan capitol. Far ranging sea empire that traded with the Egyptians, and exerted much influence on the Greek mainland. Minoan civilization reached its height between 2000 and 1450 BCE. Collapsed around 1450 BCE due to attacks from Mycenaeans from the mainland. Homer wrote Iliad and the Odyssey, the first 2 epic poems of early Greece. Written in the Dark Age of Greece, 1100-750 BCE. Homer’s writing appeared at the end of this period. Homer gave the Greeks an ideal past, wrote history for them. Made legendary heroes for Greeks to worship, idolize and strive to become. His works became scholastic texts that were taught to generations of Greek males. The values Homer established were the aristocratic values of courage and honor. Created a warrior-aristocracy, and in this society women were also given set codes of conduct, such as faithfulness to their husbands. Polis created around 750-500 BCE. Small but autonomous political unit in which all major political, social, and religious activities were carried out at one central location (the Polis). A city, town, or village and the surrounding countryside. Place of assembly (the Acropolis in Athens). Consisted of all citizens (adult males), all possessed fundamental rights, coupled with responsibilities. Created loyalty to one’s home state, but this loyalty also brought about Greece’s downfall. Sparta, Athens, Thebes are the main Greek poleis. civilization/organization Tyrants the aspirations of the new industrial and commercial groups led to the rise of tyrants in the seventh and sixth centuries BCE. Not necessarily oppressive or wicked. Greek tyrants were rulers who came to power in unconstitutional way— he was not subject to the law. Once in power, tyrants built new temples, marketplaces and walls to enhance his popularity and glorify the city. Was extinguished by the end of the sixth century BCE, mostly because the tyrants did not follow the logic of Greek thinking and the rule of law, and
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tyranny did not follow these laws. Instituted absolute rule/power. Ended the rule of narrow aristocracies, led to the development of democracy, and the increased public involvement in government. Socrates (469-399 BCE), left no writings, but we know about him from his pupils. A Sophist, was a stonemason, but his true passion was philosophy. Taught numerous pupils, but not for pay. He believed the goal of education was to improve the individual. Taught the Socratic method, employs question-and- answer techniques to help students answer their own questions using reason.
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