Geog-1HA3-Master-Notes (2) - Geography 1HA3 Master Notes...

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Geography 1HA3 Master NotesGeography- Means to write about the earth. Geography focuses on spatial variation, difference across space.Absolute space– Objective reality, static, measurable with physical units.Relative space– Subjective or perceived space.Absolute location– A precise point on the earth’s surface, measureable by latitude and longitude.Relative location– Where something is situated in relation to something else (west of Toronto).Site– The location of a specific geographic fact or phenomenon (at the intersection of two rivers).Situation– Same thing as relative location.Place– Values associated with a location (steel city), perceived or subjective view of a location.Sense of Place– Attachment to a specific location (hometown, Jerusalem).Placelessness– Homogeneous or standardized landscapes, lacking variety or character.Topophilia– The love of a place.Topophobia– The fear of a place.Region– The part of the earth’s surface that displays internal homogeneity and is relatively distinct from the surrounding area according to some criteria.Regionalization– The process of classification in which each location is assigned to a region.Three types of regions: formal, functional, and vernacular (explained later on in notes).Distance– The spatial separation of points, by an accepted unit of measurement.Distribution– A pattern of geographic facts within an area (clustered, random, uniform).Distance decay– The declining intensity of any given pattern or process with increasing distance from a given location.Friction of Distance– The restraining effect that distance has on interaction or movement.Accessibility– The ease with which a location may be reached from other locations.Interaction– Relationship or linkages between locations.Scale– The resolution level used in human geographic research. The relationship or ratio between the size of a feature on the map and the same item on the earth’s surface. Usually refers to the size of an area being studied, but may also refer to time and/or the number of people being studied.Small scale – Atlanta is a point on the map.Large scale – Atlanta isthe map.
Diffusion– The spread of any phenomenon over geographic space.Perception– The process by which we acquire and interpret information about the world.Mental map– An individual’s representation of space, gives an indication.Map– A graphic representation of part of the earth’s surface.Essential quality of maps: They are representations of a locality or place, locational image.Projection– The method by which the curved surface of the earth is represented on a flat map.All map projections result in some distortion of at least one of the four main map properties:AreaShapeDistanceDirectionThe globe grid: Key reference points are the North and South poles, the equator, and the PM.

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