1US CongressChapter 6Intentions of Constitutional DesignxrhombusThe Framers of the Constitution were ambivalent about democracy and concerned about the possibility of government tyranny.xrhombusWanted an energetic government capable of accomplishing its assigned tasks.xrhombusIntended for the legislative branch to be the center of policymaking.xrhombusMade sure that Congress was surrounded by competing centersof government power.xrhombusExperienced the weakness of the congress under the Articles of Confederation.xrhombusArticle 1, Section 1 gave Congress the power to make laws.
2Enumerated Powers (Article I, Section 8)1.Lay and collect taxes and duties2.Borrow Money3.Regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the states4.Establish rules for naturalization (the process of becoming a citizen) and bankruptcy5.Coin money, set its value, and fix the standard of weights and measures6.Punish counterfeiting7.Establish a post office and post roads8.Issue patents and copyrights9.Define and punish piracies, felonies on the high seas, and crimes against the law of nations10.Create courts inferior to (below) the US Supreme Court11.Declare War12.Raise and support an army and navy and make rules of their governance13.Provide for a militia (reserving to the states the right to appoint militia officers and to train militias under congressional rules)14.Exercise legislative powers over the seat of government (the District of Columbia) and over places purchased to be federal facilities (forts, arsenals, dockyards, and “other needful buildings”15.Make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United StatesOther Powers of CongressxrhombusNecessary and Proper Clauseor Elastic Clause– Allow Congress’s powers to expand beyond enumerated list…basis for the Implied Powers to make whatever laws necessary to carry our responsibilities. oMcCulloch v. Maryland (1819)oDepartment of Homeland Security (2003)oNational Income Tax (1913)oHealthcare Reform Act (2010)xrhombusReserved Powers – Those powers not listed in Article I are reserved to the states; stems from 10thAmendment.xrhombusNationally organized on basis of “Separation of Powers” and “Checks and Balances”
3Legislative Branch StructurexrhombusBicameral legislature – Created by the Connecticut Compromise (Great Compromise). Structure of Congress divided into two houses.oHouse (Lower House)•Representatives based on population•2 -year term with no term limitsoSenate (Upper House)•Two from each state•6 -year term with no term limitsEligibility and ApportionmentxrhombusApportionment– House Seats are apportioned every 10 years following the Censusxrhombus3/5 Compromise – originally slaves were counted as 3/5 of a person for 20 years following the ratification of the US ConstitutionxrhombusHouseoTwenty-five years old and a citizen for at least seven yearso
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- Government, United States Congress, Congressional Budget Office