EEB 100 - Cheat Sheet Midterm - Where are plants animals...

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Where are plants & animals found? Ho: no predictive pattern H1: abiotic constraints (water avail, temp/climate, light/nutri) H2: biotic interact (competition, avoiding predators) Fundamental niche : range of physical conditions & resources within which individuals of a species can persist Realized niche : range of physical…can persist in presence of competitors and predators C3: rice, grapes wheat ; C4: corn, panicum, sugar cane Light intensity: C3 plants will plateau & can’t utilize light but C4 plants can max out but not until later Water avail: C4 plants do better @ lower water regimes while C3 plants use water better in increasing metabolism [CO2]: C3 plants utilize better Ideal Free Distribution Ideal : animals move to where their gains are the greatest Free : no barriers or restrictions to movements EX: High & low reward feeders in fish tank Habitat matching rule : the ratio of food intake rates across 2 habitats matches the ratio of animals in those habitats Every animal has same intake rate: can’t increase forage rate Abrahams & Dill: how much food for risk when predator added finding caloric value of risk ; divide experiment by sex (females risk more b/c they need extra energy to have babies) Sugar Maple Trees are physiologically limited due to abiotic South: hot summers, North: cold winter, West: drought Leaf Shape & Venation Benefits of high density: support, rapid transport, redundancy Benefit of low density: more photosynthetic Vein density: highest in trees, higher in sun than shade, increases with aridity (dry air) but leaf size gets smaller Invasive plant: make envir drier so other species cant live Use more water at leaf scale & ecosystem scale Keystone Species : large role in the prevalence and population levels of other species within their ecosystem EX: removing pisaster, trophic cascade & mytilus becomes dominant competator; sea otters removed that eat urchins When b & d constant = density independent growth (abiotic) When b or d change = density dependent growth (biotic) Negative density dependence : popul grow slower as size increases, lack of resource, attract more predators/disease Positive density dependence: popul grow slower when size is too small Allee Effect (ex: white abalone & pass pigeon) Models in ecology predict: popu size & stability, effects of comp, predator-prey interactions Logistic Growth Equation: EX: Daphnia & Algae in lakes Pattern 1: stable over time Pattern 2: both cycle Pattern 3: daphnia cycle and algae stable R-selected: rarely near carrying cap, popul crash before k, b&d density indepen, favors rapid reproduction (quantity) K-selected: b&d rates density dependent, quality reproduction Competition Exploitative: individuals don’t interact; going for same resources; whoever gets it first, no fighting Interference: individ directly deny access to resources; physical monopolization of resource *competition btwn 2 individ is stronger if from same species EX: P. caudatum vs P. Aurelia Caudatum grows faster, more efficient @ using resources Aurelia better at surviving & dealing with stressful environ.
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