HIST-172 Final Exam-IDs from Midterm to Final Lessons - Final IDs Kursk The Largest Battle in Human History Kursk July 5-12 1943 Germans v Soviets

HIST-172 Final Exam-IDs from Midterm to Final Lessons -...

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Final IDsKursk: The Largest Battle in Human History · Kursk- July 5-12, 1943; Germans v. Soviets, Manstein v. Zhukov, after battle of Stalingrad and summer thaw,Germans on the offense and Soviets had a counterattack planned, 2 largest military forces to square off ever with evenly matched forces; Soviet victory; drastically changed course of war- the moment that Germany lost the war, lost initiative, now mostly in a retreat, defensive. · Erich von Manstein- German general at battle of Kursk, he planned the Soviet encirclement in city of Kharkov, Plan A: initially wanted to have a fake retreat that would spilt Soviet forces along Crimea River in order to encircle them [Hitler refused to allow this because of his racist thinking]; Plan B: Operation Citadel; day of battle he was in North · Kharkov- Russian city encircled and later captured in Feb. 1943 by Germans · Operation Citadel- Plan B. Manstein’s plan, centered on German offense at Kursk that would launch a pincher attack from North and South in order encircle Soviets, problems with plan:Soviets had learned from previous encirclements/ spies, US, British intelligence knew of German’s plan · Georgi Zhukov – Soviet General, knew of Plan B and came up with a counter-trap plan to prepare Kursk with fortifications around it with huge weapon and man reserves, when Germans get weak, he thought the Soviets could launch massive Soviet counterattack · Walter Model- German general at Battle of Kursk, he began in South · Konstantin Rokossovsky- Soviet general at Battle of Kursk, he began in North · Nikolai Vatutin- Soviet general at Battle of Kursk, he began in South · Ivan Konev- Soviet general at Battle of Kursk, general in charge of reserves that Russian’s secretly had · Tiger Tank- German tank, platform for the single most successful German artillery (88 mm gun—great range) · T-34 Tank- Soviet tank at battle of Kursk, it was the main tank they used · Prokhorovka Station- Small village, Manstein v. Konev; July 12, 1943, climax of Battle of Kursk; Germans had just broke through Southern fortifications, Konev went and hit Manstein hard and Soviets won. Greatest intensity of the engagement. Both sides had known that it would be a decisive battle. · Two reasons why Germany’s situation after July 1943 was very bad- 1. Battle of Kursk—Germans wanted to avoid this battle of attrition against a stronger resourced nation (Soviets had better production because there factories not hit by bombs. German factories were under air bombardment, their production had peaked. ) 2. July 8—eastern front and then western front opened, Hitler placed German in war of 2 fronts= war of attrition that Germans knew, from WWI, was very bad If D-Day was to have a remote chance of success: 7 Key Preconditions· Dwight Eisenhower- General of Overlord; good leader because he was a good planner, good administrator,
organized, knew how to take risks (with eather). Always took full responsibility- sign of a good leader.

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