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POS 2041 Exam 1 review sheet Liberty - The freedom of individuals to believe, act, and express themselves as they choose so long as doing so does not infringe on the rights of other individuals Example/Concept: The United States Constitution sets forth our civil liberties, such as freedom of religion, speech, and press. Representative Democracy - A form of democracy in which the will of the majority is expressed through smaller groups of individuals elected by the people to act as their representatives Example/Concept: There are presidential and parliamentary democracies. In presidential democracy, the lawmaking and law enforcing branches of government are separate but equal; in a parliamentary democracy, the lawmaking and law enforcing branches of government overlap Faction - A group of persons forming a cohesive minority Example/Concept: The Federalists and Anti-Federalists fought for the ratification of the Constitution
Social Conflict - Disagreements among people in a society over what the society's priorities should be Example/Concept: An examples of social conflict is the distribution of health care Authority - The ability to legitimately exercise power, such as the power to make and enforce laws Example/Concept: An authoritative position in government is the Secretary of State, the President, and the Speaker of the House Political Culture - The set of ideas, values, and attitudes about government and the political process held by a community or nation Example/Concept: The process of electing the president or governor can be considered political culture Separation of Powers - The principle of dividing governmental powers among the executive, the legislative, and the judicial branches of government Example/Concept: The President isn't allowed to declare war without the consent of Congress, and Congress cannot pass a law without the president's approval Implied Powers - The powers of the federal government that are implied by the expressed powers in the Constitution, particularly in Article 1, Section 8
Example/Concept: The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States... Politics - The process of resolving conflicts over how society should use its scarce resources and who should receive various benefits, such as public health care and public higher education Example/Concept: The process of determining who gets what, when, and how in society Government - The individuals and institutions that make society's rules and also possess the power and authority to enforce those rules Example/Concept: State courts and the House of Representatives are examples of governmental instittuions Legitimacy - Widespread support and acceptance of the society; believes the systems and institutions in place are the most appropriate for that society Example/Concept: The United States' government has legitimacy because the