HD_115_Chapter_1 - HD 115 Chapter 1 Field of Child...

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HD 115 Chapter 1 Field of Child Development - Research has been stimulated by social pressures 2 better the lives of kids - Info about child development is interdisciplinary Periods of Development - Prenatal Period (conception – birth): most rapid phase of change - Infancy & toddlerhood (birth – 2) : wide array of motor, perceptual, & intellectual capacities, beginnings of language, intimate ties to others - Early Childhood ( 2 – 6): kids become more self-sufficient & self-controlled, sense of morality, ties w/ peers, make-believe play - Middle Childhood (6 – 11): improved athletic abilities, kids learn about wider world in school, basic literacy skills - Adolescence (11 – 18): Initiates transition 2 adulthood, puberty → adult body & sexual maturity, thought becomes abstract - Emerging Adulthood (18-25): serious exploration of options in love, career, personal values, researchers just began studying this phase Domains of Developments - 3 broad domains: Physical, Cognitive, Emotional & Social - Each influences and is influenced by the others Basic Issues - Theory – an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, predicts behavior o They provide an organizing framework 2 our observations o They can serve as a sound basis for practical action - Theories can be influenced by cultural values and belief systems of the time, but their continued existence depends on scientific verification - 1) Course of development continuous? - 2) One course of development or many? - 3) Genetic or environmental factors more important in influencing development Continuous or Discontinuous Development - If infants/preschoolers respond 2 the world in the same way as adults do, development is continuous (a process of gradually augmenting same types if skills that were there initially) - If thoughts, emotions, behavior differ, development is discontinuous (new ways of understanding and responding emerge at specific times o Change is fairly sudden One Course of Development - It has become aware that different combos of personal and environmental circumstances result in different paths of change - Contexts that mold development are multi-layered & complex o Personal – Heredity & biological makeup o Enviro – immediate settings & remote settings Nature or Nurture - A theory’s position on this issue depends on how it explains individual differences - Some emphasize stability (kids who are high/low in a characteristic will remain so at later ages); in this case, heredity is important - If environment is the factor, theorists point 2 early experiences as establishing a pattern of behavior A Balanced point of view - Many theoretical points of view have gathered research support b/c the network of factors contributing to human change is complex and isolating the effects of each is challenging Historical Foundations Medieval Times - Childhood was regarded as a separate phase of life in medieval Europe o Painters depicted kids as childlike; loose comfy gowns, playing games, looking up to adults - Adults were sensitive to kids physical limits and psychological needs
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