Exam 3 Book Notes

Exam 3 Book Notes - Exam 3 Psych Notes Learning a...

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Exam 3 Psych Notes - Learning – a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experiences not reflexes o How easily can a behavior be learned? Low: many species can learn the behavior easily High: some behaviors can only be learned by certain species, and or cannot be learned by a species at all (e.g. language, headstands) Age specificity (can’t teach a 9 month old to be potty trained) o 4 Ways Humans Can Learn Direct Experience (includes classical conditioning You have to do it to learn it, can be positive or negative, key issue is reinforcers Observation of Another Person You watch someone else do it to learn it, real life or TV. Could be your role models, or imitating someone who you like or want to be like. Symbolic Learning Being told/read about it. Someone tells you or you read it in a book. Or an explanation (with older kids) o Depends on credibility of the source, weather you can believe it or not Cognitive Learning Prior information, figure it out. (Take what you know and figure it out. Depends on intelligence o Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Classical – example is “Little Albert” and the white rat Every time a young child is bad, his father takes him out to the woodshed and gives him a whipping, By the time the child is 6 years old he is afraid of the woodshed and wont go near it. UCR and CR is Fear. UCS is whipping. CS is woodshed. Operant – need to wait for a behavior to occur in order to reinforce it. Might be able to do this through shaping (reinforcing gradual approximations of the desired behavior. Positive Reinforcement (rewards) behavior is desired. Increase behavior. Punishment (worst). Undesired behavior. Decrease behavior Negative Reinforcement. Put in a bad/fearful state. Increase behavior Omission training (put in a good state). Decrease behavior. - Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood - Variation during early childhood was due to heredity and also environmental experiences.
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- One of the most important physical developments during early childhood is continuing development of the brain and other parts of the nervous system. o From 3 to 6 years of age the most rapid growth in the brain takes place in part of the frontal lobe involved in planning and organizing new actions and in maintaining attention to task. (Prefrontal cortex) - 2 factors contributes to the increase in the brain’s size o The number and size of dendrites increase o Myelination continues. Myelination is the process in which axons are covered with a layer of fat cells, which increase the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system Motor Development - Handedness o Genetic inheritance seems to be a strong influence o Left-handers are more likely to have reading problems. Left-handers also tend to have unusually good visual-spatial skills and the ability to imagine spatial layouts.
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Exam 3 Book Notes - Exam 3 Psych Notes Learning a...

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