CHM 116 Ch 16-Acid-Base Equilibria

CHM 116 Ch 16-Acid-Base Equilibria - Chapter 16 Acid-Base...

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1 1 1 Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria z Acids and bases are found in many common substances and are important in life processes. Which of the following are acids and which are bases? z Oven Cleaner z Sodium Carbonate z Vinegar z Windex z Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) z Soap 2 Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria z There are many organic/biological acids and bases, and there are acids used industrially for many purposes. z Example: H 2 SO 4 z Used in the production of fertilizers, paint dyes, plastics, pharmaceuticals, . .. z The acid in lead storage batteries in most cars 3 16.1 Acids and Bases z Acid: Base: tastes sour tastes bitter stings skin feels slippery corrosive to metals releases CO 2 from carbonates turns litmus red turns litmus blue turns phenolphthalein colorless turns ph.ind. pink z React together to form a salt with loss of the characteristic acid/base properties 4 Arrhenius Theory z Acid: substance that produces H + in aqueous solution z Base: substance that produces OH - in aqueous solution z Not realistic: H + has a radius of 10 - 13 cm, which gives a very concentrated charge, so it associates with H 2 O as H(H 2 O) 4 + , which we usually simplify to H 3 O + or H + (aq) HCl NaOH 5 z Acid: donates a proton to another substance z Base: accepts a proton from another substance z Acids: HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) NH 4 + (aq) + H 2 O(l) U H 3 O + (aq) + NH 3 (aq) z Bases: NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) U OH - (aq) + NH 4 + (aq) CO 3 2 - (aq) + H 2 O(l) U OH - (aq) + HCO 3 - (aq) 16.2 Bronsted-Lowrey Acids and Bases 6 Bronsted-Lowrey Acids and Bases Transfer of a proton (hydrogen ion)
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2 2 7 Conjugate Acids and Bases z Pair of substances differing only by one H + z HF(aq) + H 2 O(l) U H 3 O + (aq) + F - (aq) acid 1 base 2 acid 2 base 1 z CO 3 2- (aq) + H 2 O(l) U HCO 3 - (aq) + OH - (aq) 8 Group Work z Write a balanced equation showing how the following substances behave as acids in water and identify the conjugate acid-base pairs. HNO 3 HCO 3 - H 3 PO 4 H 2 PO 4 - z HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) Æ H 3 O + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) z acid 1 base 2 acid 2 base 1 9 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs z Determine the formula of the conjugate acid of each base. z Base Conjugate Acid SO 4 2 HCO 3 NH 2 ClO 2 10 z Amphoteric substances can act as either an acid or a base. z HCO 3 - (aq) + OH - (aq) U CO 3 2 - (aq) + H 2 O(l) z HCO 3 - (aq) + HCl (aq) U H 2 CO 3 (aq) + Cl - (aq) Amphoterism 11 z Write equations to describe the reactions of HPO 4 2- with : z OH - z HCl Amphoterism 12 Polyprotic Acids z Some acids can donate more than one proton. z Mono- di- tri- . .. poly- z Diprotic: H 2 SO 4 , H 2 CO 3 , H 2 SO 3 , z Not all H atoms are acidic. Example: acetic acid, CH 3 CO 2 H z In oxoacids, the acidic hydrogens are bonded to oxygen.
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3 3 13 Acid Strengths z We can measure the relative tendency for acids to donate protons (usually relative to the solvent). Acids are rated from strong to weak.
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CHM 116 Ch 16-Acid-Base Equilibria - Chapter 16 Acid-Base...

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