Psychology - Thought and Knowledge 2

Psychology - Thought and Knowledge 2 - Psychology Thought...

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Psychology 10/26/06 Thought and Knowledge II Do we always make good decisions? Is our thinking always rational? Early Views: Decisions are rational, logical thought processes based on analysis of all possible alternatives. Not True! Human Decision Process -Not always reasonable -Don’t always make best decision -Influenced by biases Decision Making -the process by which an individual weighs pros and cons of alternatives to make a choice. Characteristics: -Generating, selecting, and or evaluating relevant choices. -Rules for deciding are not obvious -choices involve some risk or uncertainty Example: what college should I attend? How do we decide among alternatives? -Algorithm -specific rules or procedures that guarantee an accurate solution -series of steps that lead to a solution -solve anagram EABLL -could try all possible orderings (120) Disadvantages of algorithms: -inefficient and time-consuming (try every order) -trying to find perfect apt in ATL (no algorithm available) Heuristics -Humans often make decisions using heuristics -shortcut, “rules of thumb”, educated guess based on experience -informal strategy, works sometimes, not guaranteed
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-Playing Chess (use different heuristics) -control the center of the board -simplifies the task -Finding an apt in ATL: -talking to friends
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Psychology - Thought and Knowledge 2 - Psychology Thought...

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