3.5 SOUND TRANSMISSIONS IN THE OCEAN

3.5 SOUND TRANSMISSIONS IN THE OCEAN - SOUND TRANSMISSIONS...

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SOUND TRANSMISSIONS IN THE OCEAN Sound travels farther and faster in water than in air. An explosion heard for 1 km in air can be heard 160 km. away in water. Velocity of sound in dry air (at 20 C): 334 m/sec Velocity of sound in water (at 20 C and .35% salinity): 1450 m/sec Sound velocity in water increases: o + 4.5 m/se per 1 C increase in temperature (+1.3 m/sec per 0.1% in salinity) o + 1.7 m/sec per 100 m increase in depth (pressure) Result: Velocity-minimum zone in the ocean 1. Temperature decrease ( p increasing): Net V decrease 2. Temperature stable ( p increasing): Net V increase SONAR (SOUND NAVIGATION AND RANGING) 3-LAYER VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE OCEAN Surface layer: Warm, mixed, most life, fast currents. Zone of changing properties Deep ocean: Dark, cold, sparse life, slow currents. TEMPERATURE GENERALIZED: some parts of the ocean will differ. Called the
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course GEOS 104 taught by Professor Cox during the Spring '08 term at Williams.

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3.5 SOUND TRANSMISSIONS IN THE OCEAN - SOUND TRANSMISSIONS...

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