Ital 20X Lecture Notes - Introduction Friday March 27 2 015...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction Friday, March 27, 2 015 7:47 PM • Italian Culture ○ What do you know about Italian Culture? ○ What does Google think? § Cars and V espas…driven by crazy drivers § Ancient History…and magnificent art □ Roman Empire & Renaissance □ Musalini & Fascist Regime § Caffeine Bombs…espresso or cappuccino ( but never after 1pm) § Big, Noisy ( & Nosy) Families…always eating wonderful food § Music ( Opera) & Fashion ( Armani, Dolce & Gabbana) § Design, Style, Tourism, and Beautiful Beaches § Big Womanizers…ALWAYS gesticulating ( using hands) § Dangerous V ices: Gelato and Cigarettes § Successful Hobbies: Soccer with an afternoon rest ○ But Italian Culture is much, much more § Mafia, Organized Crime § Jobs § Art § Politics § Catholic Church Political Culture Wednesday, April 8 , 2 015 2:51 PM • Political Cleavages: Historical Roots ○ Unification in the 1800s § Strong political views toward the unification process § Strong gov't led by a strong leader who will bring Italy back to the times of Rome, depicted as a strong nation ○ Find against Fascism during WWII shows sharp political cleavages § South: Monarchists § North: Pro Fascists vs. Resistance § Born into different cultures, traditions, etc. ○ Post WWII § Political cultures born in their relation to the Fascist experience □ Conservation; pro US; pro capitalism; strong links to the church □ Communism; Italian communism; taking ideas of the Soviet ideals and adapting them to the Italian reality which is a democracy § Heavily influenced by the US § Lack of a shared Italian political culture -­‐> dominance of party ideologies instead • Italian Political Cultures ○ Catholic § Based on moral values § Agrarian in its origins § Dominated by the Church § Strong anticommunism § Family-­‐centered § Strong pro Church and USA § Use of a mass party ( Christian Democrats -­‐ DC) ○ Communist § Based on moral values § Rooted in the Resistance § Re-­‐assessment of society § Culture is a road to enlightenment § Centered on morality and solidarity § Creation of a mass party ( Italian Communist Party -­‐ PCI) • Catholic V alues ○ Private property as a moral value § Culture is a road to enlightenment § Centered on morality and solidarity § Creation of a mass party ( Italian Communist Party -­‐ PCI) • Catholic V alues ○ Private property as a moral value ○ Myth of the land ○ Family centered ○ Work ethic • Communist V alues ○ Solidarity between workers and farmers ○ Abolishment of the dominant economic structure based on land ownership ○ Creation of an Italian Communism as opposed to International Communism • Decline of Subcultures ○ 1970s-­‐1990s: crisis of mass parties § Emergence of a consumer society § Parties are not engaging people to their ideas § Political corruption brought mistrust toward parties § New forms of socialization and culture-­‐formation § Rampant dis-­‐engagement and political withdrawal § Candidate-­‐centered politics ○ Catholic § Secularization of Italian Society starting in the 1970s § Crisis of the Italian Political System in the 1990s ○ Communist § Collapse of Communism in the 1980s § Crisis of the Italian Political System in the 1990s § Amoral familism The Southern Question Monday, April 1 3, 2 015 10:46 PM • South in the Post World War Period ○ Largely agricultural ○ System of powerful landowners ○ Remote from the "heart of political power" ○ Lack of any industrial sector ○ Lack of infrastructures ○ Presence of a strong secessionist movement to make the Southern Independent • The Southern Question ○ Is there a distinctive Southern culture as opposed to a Northern one? • Images of the South ○ Backward ○ Amoral familism ○ Fragmented ○ Patriarchal ○ Barbaric ○ Incapable of self rule ○ Individualistic; selfish: lack of civic consciousness • Southern Question addressed ○ 1950s -­‐ Two initiatives 1. Cassa Per Il Mezzogiorno 2. Agrarian Feform • Objectives ○ Rapid industrialization of the South ○ End of large land ownership system ○ Closing of North/South divide ○ Fight high unemployment ○ Increase in consumption • Results ○ Cathedrals in the desert -­‐> failed industrialization ○ Distribution of small pieces of land -­‐> failed creation of modern agrarian sector ○ Emergence of large bureaucracy -­‐> corruption and inefficiency ○ High unemployment -­‐> internal migration ○ Rapid growth of Northern cities -­‐> social and racist problems • The Southern Question Today ○ Creation of a common culture through § Investments in the South ○ Emergence of large bureaucracy -­‐> corruption and inefficiency ○ High unemployment -­‐> internal migration ○ Rapid growth of Northern cities -­‐> social and racist problems • The Southern Question Today ○ Creation of a common culture through § Investments in the South § Mobility § Better understanding of the southern traits § Tourism § Migration and education § Efforts to curtail organized crime Organized Crime -­‐ The Mafia Thursday, April 1 6, 2 015 8:31 PM • Origins ○ Post-­‐unification -­‐ 1800s ○ After WWII they expanded their criminal nature ○ Roots are in the pastoral world and large land estates of the South ○ Linked to poverty, lack of infrastructures, and absence of the State presence in the South ○ Started to form connections with the political class § They provided the funds for the infrastructures so the money going to the mafia explains the lack of infrastructure in the South • Characteristics ○ Mafia § Long lasting organization § Connected to the political world § Also called Cosa Nostra (our thing) □ This term was born in the US when Italians came to the US and stuck together § International in nature § Deeply rooted in local and urban Sicily § Highly centralized structure □ Now that we know much more about how the mafia operates, we have learned that there is a top boss (older man, highly respected, survived through mafia wars), then committee ( heads of larger mafia groups participate, makes all the calls), then people below them □ Mafia provided protection to large land owners □ Got people jobs by killing off others ○ Camorra § Rooted in Naples and its vicinity □ Because it was such a poor city, cigarettes became a luxury sold on the black market □ Clever people decided to control this trade, exploited the economic need of the people in Naples § Members are from poor and criminal families □ If education would have been provided to young males than the Camorra never would have happened § Fragmented structure □ Clever people decided to control this trade, exploited the economic need of the people in Naples § Members are from poor and criminal families □ If education would have been provided to young males than the Camorra never would have happened § Fragmented structure □ Not centralized with committee, they are families that control specific parts of Naples □ Today it is only based on criminal activity but it used to have vengeance murders □ Structure is similar to gangs in the US, a family owns an area and if someone intrudes they get killed ○ N'Drangheta § Mostly rooted in mountain regions of Calabria □ Started by controlling economic activities here ® Agriculture ® Tourism -­‐ kidnapped wealthy tourists and held them for ransom □ Authorities started targeting the mafia, so this allowed N'Drangheta to shift from kidnappings to drug dealing and drug activity □ Today, extremely active in world cocaine market ® No evidence because they are so secretive § Strength of family relations □ Have kids of families marry each other so the power stays within and keeps growing § Fragmented and no use of archaic rituals of initiations • Common Traits ○ Secret Societies § Presented by someone already in the organization, women aren't officially a part of it ○ Rites of Initiation § Cut a finger and drop blood onto an image of Mary, burn the image, 'if you ever betray the mafia your soul will burn in hell' ( mafia bosses are actually very religious) ○ Code of Honor § No betrayal, no talking to anyone outside of the mafia, if you talk you're killed ○ Family Protection § If a main joins the organization, his whole family gets protection, not just him ○ Vengeance § Something done to a family member, take vengeance on them, no forgiveness ○ Hierarchical structure ○ Symbols and Codes § Principle of Omerta □ Even if not in the mafia, if you witness a crime you still pretend you § Something done to a family member, take vengeance on them, no forgiveness ○ Hierarchical structure ○ Symbols and Codes § Principle of Omerta □ Even if not in the mafia, if you witness a crime you still pretend you didn't see it ( See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil) -­‐ afraid of repercussions to themselves and their family; fear • Mafia in Modern Italy ○ Early 1900s: control over the 'lemon grove' ○ 1920s: Cosa Nostra goes overseas ○ 1930s: strong retreat during Fascism § Mussolini angry with mafia because he wanted to create a strong Italian nation and the mafia was ruining this sense of unification § He sent truce to Sicily and a lot of parts of the mafia became dismantled but the South was still facing reforms that weren't working so they were still against unification ○ 1950s: control over the land and against land reform ○ 1960s: mafia becomes a social and political phenomenon -­‐ 1st mafia war ○ 1970s: the Italian state fights back ○ 1980s: drugs and the 2nd 'new mafia' war § This showed everyone the extent to which the mafia had changed its values (from family and traditions to murders of everyday people for reasons other than code of honor) § Until this time it was impossible to know anything about the mafia because it was so tightly kept, now though there were people betraying the mafia thanks to Falcone and Borsellino getting people to talk ○ 1980-­‐1990s: excellent cadavers § Mafia feels threatened by the betrayals so they start to target politicians and magistrates ( people of high status) ○ 1990s-­‐2000: the crisis of the Italian state and the weakening of mafia The Italian Food Culture Wednesday, April 2 2, 2 015 1:54 PM • Italian Cuisine ○ Taken centuries of other people's traditions ○ A country of constant movement ○ Revised those traditions to make what we know as Italian Cuisine • The Medieval Table ○ The Appearance of Pasta § Spaghetti was brought to Italy by Marco Polo from China § But pasta was already in Italy a century before that § Throw it against the wall to see if its done § Had to feed sailors for many days § Decided to make pasta with flour that could last a long time □ Pasta fresca vs. Pasta secca □ Fresh pasta ( eaten within a few hours) vs. dry pasta □ Exported from Sicily ○ The Birth of Parmesan Cheese § Origins in the Medieval times § Eaten only on pasta, not by itself § Only for upper class ○ Catholic Church and the Italian Diet § Dictated what food was forbidden for people to eat ○ Table Manners start: the Fork! § Developed by the upper class § Host would provide a wooden plate, but you would have to provide your own knife, spoons and goblets were shared § Fork was invented to eat spaghetti ○ Love for Spices § Not much else to dress the pasta with § No tomatoes, little meat ○ The Order of Courses: patterns of opposites § Combine dishes that were salty with one that is sweet § Hot and cold § E.g. pear and cheese, melon and prosciutto • The Renaissance Table ○ Sugar enters the scene § Combine dishes that were salty with one that is sweet § Hot and cold § E.g. pear and cheese, melon and prosciutto • The Renaissance Table ○ Sugar enters the scene § Desserts! ○ The pasta culture grows ○ Food becomes a form of art § First chefs began to form § Quality of food and presentation of food ○ Feeding the Popes § Popes liked to eat very well § Chef of the Pope was the most important chef in Europe § During the conclave, the bishops would only get water and bread to shorten the time it took to decide who was Pope • 1600 ○ Food culture is in decline § Wars going on with other nation states ○ Agricultural revolution § Explorers brought back many products from other countries § Planted in Italy and quickly became part of Italian food traditions § First use of tomato sauce in pasta ○ Local specialties and civic patriotism § Every region or city has their own specialty § Porequtta ( cooked pig) has become a symbol for a feast § The people of the cities identify with those dishes • 1700 ○ Pasta dominates the Italian table ○ The disappearance of spices' • The Revolution -­‐ Late 1800s ○ The creation of ONE Italian cuisine § French domination of Italian menus □ Because the dominate political power was the Savoy ( French family) □ The ones who supported military for unification § Local ( French) vs. National food □ Not renowned everywhere § The birth of one emblem of Italian food: Pizza in Naples □ Originally a bi-­‐product of the Greek pita □ Margarita pizza is the standard ® Princess of Savoy's name was Margarita § Local ( French) vs. National food □ Not renowned everywhere § The birth of one emblem of Italian food: Pizza in Naples □ Originally a bi-­‐product of the Greek pita □ Margarita pizza is the standard ® Princess of Savoy's name was Margarita ® Cook in Naples dedicated the dish to her ® Colors of the unified state ( red -­‐ tomato sauce, white -­‐ mozzarella, and green-­‐ basil) § Pelligrino Artusi and the "Science in the Kitchen" □ Considered the father of Italian cuisine □ Realized that there was no single national cuisine □ Published the book "Science in the Kitchen" ® First book of Italian cuisine ® Combines all the important recipes of Italy • Early 1900: "Mi Emirgro Per Magnar" ○ Large emigration to the New World (United States) § How the new immigrants strengthen Italian cuisine abroad □ Search the good flavors of Italian food □ Food becomes a vehicle for Italian identity ® Becomes a part of the new country's community by sharing food ○ Fusion cuisine in the New World § Meat and pasta becomes a symbol of prosperity □ Originated in the US due to the excess supply of meat there □ But in Italy, meat and pasta is not combined, they are ate separately § Regional traditions come together • Fascism and Food ○ Mussolini and his love from bread § Starved the Italians in order to provide for the military § Ate mostly bread or anything produced by the land ○ Cult of the countryside and simple food § Propaganda encouraging them to not eat rich, advanced food ○ Sober Italians vs. "beefsteak" US civilization § Against the "beefsteak" habits of America ○ Social Classes: scarcity vs. abundance ○ Slow emergence of a national cuisine • Miracle Food: 1950s-­‐1980s ○ The New Italian Table § Abundance, Choice, V ariety ○ Slow emergence of a national cuisine • Miracle Food: 1950s-­‐1980s ○ The New Italian Table § Abundance, Choice, V ariety § Food that can be bought frozen and cooked § Women now work outside of the house and doesn't spend all day cooking ○ Nationalization of Italian Cuisine § Mass motorization § Food as entertainment ○ Emergence of frozen and premade food for all • Italian Food Today ○ The Conservatism of Italians § The search for goodness and quality § Food is a symbol of unification within the diversity § Food resonates within both subcultures ○ Slow Food Movement: Good, Clean, Fair § Keeping food local § Keeping fast food away Italy and Europe Monday, April 2 7, 2 015 2:06 PM • After WWII, the fear that the US had about Europe was that they would become communist under the Soviet dominance ○ The US tried to democratize Europe and sway the political view towards the US ○ US supported the European Union ( 1957); could be monitored § Bring countries together so there would be no more war • History of the European Union ○ 1957: Treaties of Rome ○ 1960s: Economic Growth ○ 1970s: Euroschlerosis ○ 1980s: Single Market ○ 1990s: § 1992: Maastricht Treaty § Economic Monetary Union ○ 2002: EURO ○ 2011: Wider powers to Europe • Enthusiastic European Partner ○ Art. 11 Italian Constitution ○ Founding member of EU in 1957 ○ Strong support for European Powers ○ Support for Single Market ○ Support for Single Currency ○ Support for a deeper and wider EU ○ Initiatives and supporters • European Culture in Italy ○ Part Pragmatism § Economic recovery § Economic benefits □ Steel and coal □ Regional funds ® Money Italy gives to poor regions in Europe to help them with economic conversion ® Retraining of workers in new sectors ® Especially in the South of Italy □ Steel and coal □ Regional funds ® Money Italy gives to poor regions in Europe to help them with economic conversion ® Retraining of workers in new sectors ® Especially in the South of Italy § Association with wealthier countries ○ Part Idealism § Redemption from Fascism □ Italians are good democratic people § Fear of Communism □ Becoming more European actually prevents communism from spreading § Inferiority complex in foreign affairs § Weak state • The Black Sheep of Europe ○ Bad record in policy implementation □ 90% of Laws made in Europe are not Italian laws, they are made in Parliament □ Italian Parliament then does not implement them □ Things are not accomplished like in other countries; causes controversy § Large bureaucracy ○ Clientelistic politics § Italian political system is ran by bribes and corruption ○ Economic and financial weakness ○ Reactive rather than proactive ○ Bad record in law conversion § Community Law § Political instability ○ Little knowledge of EU affairs ○ Crime, mafia, illegal immigration § Europe and Italy have been fighting over the control and resolution of immigration issue ○ Lack of coordination § Lack of communication Immigration Wednesday, May 6, 2 015 6:50 PM • Italy: A History of Migration ○ Emigration § 1880s ( unification time, left for Latin America-­‐Argentina/North America) § 1920s § 1950s ( post-­‐war) ○ Internal migration: 1950's-­‐1960s ( post-­‐war) ○ Immigration: 1980s-­‐present ( changes after war -­‐ joining EU, democratize, increase in economy) First Waves: to the Americas ○ Mostly from the South of Italy ○ Economically driven § no political issue made them leave, they just had to way to make money or feed family ○ Internal opposition to emigration § Church was against it because people would leave their Catholic beliefs behind when they left, Italy wanted a strong army made up of young men but these men were leaving ○ Temporary in nature § After made money, many came back to Italy to buy land and build a house and be self-­‐sufficient ○ Filling low-­‐skilled jobs § Many came to CA for gold rush, in Monterey they became fisherman and worked in canning industry, with time they opened up their own stores, women worked in food or clothing ○ Difficult integration in cities § Became mostly masons, many took part in the black market to trade goods, no integration with outside communities • Second Waves: to Northern Europe and Northern Italy ○ Economically driven § Needed people to work in the mines, also came mostly from Southern Italy ○ Permanent migration § Unlike first waves, people didn't return to Italy, brought whole family with them making it easier to stay ○ Difficult adaption § Didn't speak the foreign languages, worked low level jobs compared to Italy ○ Permanent migration § Unlike first waves, people didn't return to Italy, brought whole family with them making it easier to stay ○ Difficult adaption § Didn't speak the foreign languages, worked low level jobs compared to the locals there ○ Racism § Mostly seen in Northern Italy as opposed to other countries, had to fight against the strong image of Southerners being barbaric/dirty/abusive, lasted until the 1980s ○ Economic consequences for the South § Internal migration made the Northern cities grow, South was trying to industrialize at this time yet everyone was migrating North ○ Migration becomes a political and social issue § Left party ( socialist and communist) didn't want migration because they believed southerners needed to become independent in their own land, right party ( DCs) tried to help the migrants financially in order to get their votes • The New Immigrants: Who are They? ○ Po...
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