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Psychology Methods and Designs Overview

Psychology Methods and Designs Overview - Psychology...

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Psychology Methods and Designs Overview General Information : I) Types of Variables : a. True IV – the IV levels can be doled out to people randomly b. False IV – the IV levels are predetermined for each individual and outside of the experimenter’s control c. Discrete Variable – each level is a different category i. Level often described by words, not numbers (ex – male/female) ii. No intermediate values iii. Types of Discrete Variables : 1. Ordinal Variable – categories have a logical order (ex – short, medium, tall) 2. Nominal Variable – categories do not have a logical order (ex – sad, mad, happy) d. Continuous Variable – each level is a number i. There are intermediate values ii. Study often has many if not infinite levels (e.g. – height, IQ, reaction time) iii. Types of Continuous Variables : 1. Ratio Variable – if zero really represents no value, the numbers are literal and 2 times a value is really twice the value of the variable (ex – height, age) 2. Interval Variable – otherwise (ex – temperature, IQ) e. Note : i. Good designs don’t turn continuous IV’s into discrete IV’s (loses information) ii. It’s always better to have the DV’s (what you measure) be continuous variables (better for getting significant results) iii. If IV’s are discrete, it’s best to have a balanced number of participants in each level iv. In describing IV and DV, make sure you use operational definitions (very specific and empirically measurable) II) Inferential Statistics : a. Inferential statistics test two competing hypotheses i. H 0 (Null Hypothesis) – nothing is going on (the IV has no causal effect) ii. H 1 (Alternative Hypothesis) – something is going on (the IV has a causal effect) 1. Only one can be true and they describe all the possibilities iii. Process : 1. Begin by accepting H 0 and reject H 0 only if the data contradicts it, which automatically means that you accept H 1 iv. p – probability that H 0 is correct (if p < or = .05, reject H 0 and accept H 1 ) b. Types of Errors : i. Type I Error – wrongly rejecting H 0 (probability of type I error = .05) 1. Make sure that the assumptions of any statistical tests are not violated and one is using “robust” tests, ones that are pretty correct even if some of their assumptions are violated ii. Type II Error – wrongly rejecting H 1 1. Helps to avoid type II errors if there is a lot of participants and the DV is interval/ratio III) Reliability and Validity : a. Reliability – how repeatable and consistent the test is i. Test/Retest Reliability (measures repeatability) – test 1 time 1 = test 1 time 2 1. Only pertains to constructs that are traits, not states a. Traits (stable), states (easily changeable) (e.g. – traits:states::depression:sadness) 2. If the time interval is too short they’ll remember how they answered the test the last time, but if the time interval is too long then the constructs might have changed ii. Internal Consistency (measures consistency with the test) – compares all the items to each other 1. Qualify with Cronbach’s alpha or Cohen’s kappa iii.
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