Midterm 1 - Study Questions Sheet 1

Midterm 1 - Study Questions Sheet 1 - [Schemas organized...

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[Schemas – organized sets of information (made up of objects/events and our thoughts/feelings about them), which are built up from generalizations of experience, that are stored in the memory network in order to aid retrieval and help guide the processing of new information by making us perceive things more that match our existing schemas, they also help us to act quickly using this “default”, unconscious info about things.] . [Memory Network - all of these schemas are tied together in our minds in a network and are linked together by associations (referential, hierarchical, conceptual links) so that when one part is activated, associated parts are also activated, which creates memory clusters around different objects and events, these clusters also having associative links.] . [Node – the most central part of any network, the things that is activated whenever any part of that network is activated and can, in turn, help to activate anything in the memory network when activated (node in the network is whatever gets activated the most).] . [Priming – when a part of the memory network is activated, it activates that part and all parts linked to it. This activation makes those links stronger and that part of the network more accessible so that the person thinks about it more and can make new connections in the existing network.] . [Social Comparison – comparing one’s behaviors and accomplishments to that of another, which can either heighten or lower self-esteem.] . [Upward Comparison – comparing yourself to someone better (can lower self-esteem, especially if done a lot), is used to inspire better performance.] . [Downward Comparison – comparing yourself to someone worse, is used to heighten self-esteem.] . [Self-complexity – dependent upon the number of self-schemas one possesses (possible number of characteristics a person can bring out) and the amount of interconnectedness between these sets of self-schemas.] . [Self-enhancement Motive – the motivation to heighten and maintain one’s self-esteem] . [Self-verification Motive – the motivation to verify things about oneself, figure out if it’s true][Impression Formation – an integration of information about someone taken from experience that is unified to make a consistent over-all impression of them, which is updated regularly through experience (adheres to evaluative consistency – see good as consistently good and visa versa).] . [Negativity Bias – people give more weight to negative traits than to positive traits] . [Perceptual Vigilance – the tendency for people to search out negative aspects in other people and situations] . [Fundamental Attribution Error – thinking that a person is behaving that way because of dispositional factors rather than external factors (because it is the most desirable conclusion, gives more chance to predict future behavior which gives feelings of security and control, and because of perceptual salience)] . [Self-serving Bias
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