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study guide2 - The Macrosociological Perspective Social...

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Unformatted text preview: The Macrosociological Perspective Social Structure – typical patterns of a group that guide our behavior; Culture – a group’s language, beliefs, values, behaviors, gestures and material objects; Social Class – groups of people that are similar in income, education, type of employment and prestige which influences attitudes, behaviors and beliefs; Social Status – a position an individual occupies (who they are, where they work); Status Set – all statuses/positions that you occupy (ex – doctor, father, son, etc…); Ascribed Status – involuntary status (ex – male/female, young/old); Achieved Status – voluntary status (ex – teacher, mass-murderer); Status Symbols – signs that identify status, usually used by people want to show off their status; Master Status – one that cuts across other statuses you hold (ex – sex: you will always be a “male” doctor or a “male” lawyer), Status Inconsistency – contradiction between statuses, things that go against norms of that particular status Roles – the behaviors, obligation and privileges attached to status; the things that are expected of us due to our status; Role Strain – some kinds of strain put on the status that you hold, comes out of the conflicting roles of the different statuses you hold, or when you have too many different roles to keep track of or have time for Groups – people who regularly and consciously interact with each other; Social Institution – the means that each society develops to meet its basic needs Societies : The 4 Social Revolutions Hunting and Gathering Societies – depends on hunting and gathering for survival (no farming involved); Has fewest social divisions; Societies are small, because an area cannot support a lot of them; Nomadic – when food supply diminishes they move on; No one becomes wealthier then another, no rules, decisions arrive through discussion Pastoral and Horticultural Societies (first social revolution); Pastoral Societies- raised animals, but were nomadic and followed their animals to fresh pasture; Horticultural Societies – cultivated plants with hand tools (developed permanent settlements); With a steady source of food groups enlarged; Since only certain people made food, others made jewelry, tools, etc… which created trade and possibilities of wealth (started social inequality) Agricultural Societies or “Dawn of Civilization” (second social revolution) – happened when plow was invented; With huge food surplus, groups got larger and were able to further diversify in activities forming culture (philosophy, art, literature); Social inequity became fundamental feature of social life Industrial Societies (third social revolution) – started in Great Britain where steam engine was first used to run machinery; Brought even greater surplus and even greater inequity, a few became incredibly wealthy while most others had to move to cities to work or starve Postindustrial Societies (fourth social revolution) – away from production and toward service industries (ex – health, media, education, etc…); Societies based on information, services and the...
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