chapter 5 - Macromolecules are polymers Polymers large...

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1 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Macromolecules are polymers Polymers Æ large molecules made of subunits ( poly = many, meros = part) Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids Synthesis and break down of polymers Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer Longer polymer Water out Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Hydrolysis of a polymer Water in Carbohydrates: formed from C, H, and O one carbon atom for each water molecule (carbohydrates means “watered carbon” ) glucose Æ six C and six H 2 O function Æ source of energy for ATP formation 2-3 % of total body weight glycogen is storage in liver and muscle tissue sugar building blocks of DNA & RNA ( deoxyribose & ribose sugars) Diversity of Carbohydrates 3 types of carbohydrates mono saccharides di saccharides poly saccharides Monosaccharides Called simple sugars Contain up to 7 carbons Humans Æ absorb only 3 simple sugars without further digestion glucose Æ syrup fructose Æ fruit galactose Æ dairy products
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2 Structure and classification of monosaccharides Triose sugars (C 3H6O3) Glyceraldehyde Pentose sugars (C 5H10O5) Ribose Hexose sugars (C 6H12O6) Glucose Galactose Dihydroxyacetone Ribulose Fructose Disaccharides Formed by Æ 2 monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis sucrose Æ maltose Æ lactose Æ Dehydration synthesis of disaccharides Maltose Glucose Glucose Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose 1–4 glycosidic linkage Polysaccharides 10 or 100’s of monosaccharides In animals glycogen Æ polymer of 100’s of glucoses found in
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chapter 5 - Macromolecules are polymers Polymers large...

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