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12-16-07 Introduction To Sociology Study Guide Ch. 10Defining Race: Geneticists define race by noting differences in gene frequencies among selected groups. Legaldefinitions have been devised to determine who is notwhite (ex. Segregation laws). Socialdefinitions of race pay little attention to an individual’s hereditary physical features; if a person presents himself or herself as a member of a certain race and others respond to that person as a member of that race, then it makes little sense to say they are not a member of that raceDiscrimination vs. Prejudice:Prejudice is an irrationally based negative, or occasionally positive, attitude toward certain groups and their members. Discrimination refers to differential treatment, usually unequal and injurious, accorded to individuals who are assumed to belong to a particular category or group. (Prejudice is the belief/attitude, Discrimination is acting on it)Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination:Refer to complex societal arrangements that restrict the life chances and choices of a specifically defined group in comparison with those of the dominant group; benefits given to one group and withheld from anotherAssimilation, Americanization, and Pluralism:Assimilation is the process whereby groups with different cultures come to have a common culture; the integration of new elements with old ones.