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ES-ch. 8 notes - -the beginning of a speech must gain the...

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09-19-07 Effective Speaking Notes Ch. 8 -people most often remember what they first see or hear ( primary effect ) and what they have most recently seen or heard ( recency effect ) - attention is the ability to focus on one element in a given perceptual field -the factors of attention are activity, reality, proximity, familiarity, novelty, suspense, conflict, humor, and the vital -create activity by choosing active verbs, selecting dynamic stories, and using short segments -to create reality, abstract and generalize, but not so much that you lose your audience -use direct references to persons in the audience or objects nearby for proximity -references to the familiar sustain attention and provide reassurance -novel happenings, dramatic incidents, or unusual developments attract attention -use uncertainty and mystery to create suspense -controversy grabs attention, and conflict creates interest -humor allows audiences to enjoy themselves, and therefore to listen better -the vital refers to our tendency to be concerned with things that immediately benefit us
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Unformatted text preview: -the beginning of a speech must gain the listeners’ attention, secure good will and respect for the speaker, and prepare the audience for the main ideas of the speech; remember to deal with opposition openly and to state your purpose early-refer to the subject or occasion, use a personal reference or greeting, ask a rhetorical question, make a startling statement, use a quotation, tell a humorous story, or use an illustration-when complete your introduction you can announce the organizational pattern, use mnemonic devices, employ alliteration, or use repetition-the end of the speech must round off the message of the speech, letting listeners understand one more time the importance and significance of what you’re saying, and it must complete the relationship you’ve constructed between you and them-issue a challenge or appeal, summarize the major points, use a quotation, use an illustration, supply an additional inducement to belief or action, state a personal intention...
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