chapter 17 - Morganucodon oelheri lived 210 million years...

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1 Morganucodon oelheri lived 210 million years ago, and is one of the earliest common ancestors of all mammals. Only 10 cm (4 in) long, its DNA was passed on to billions of descendants – including modern humans (from Smithsonian Institution). P = G + [G x E] Gene transcription and translation ribosome Transcription and Translation Transcription Æ synthesis of RNA on a DNA template product Æ mRNA , tRNA, rRNA Translation Æ synthesis of a polypeptide using of a using the information encoded in mRNA change of “language” from nucleotides to aa Transcription & translation in pro vs. eukaryots Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell DNA molecule Gene 1 Gene 2 Gene 3 DNA strand (template) 3 5 DNA molecule Gene 1 Gene 2 Gene 3
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2 DNA molecule Gene 1 Gene 2 Gene 3 DNA strand (template) 3 5 TRANSCRIPTION Codon mRNA 3 5 DNA molecule Gene 1 Gene 2 Gene 3 DNA strand (template) 3 5 TRANSCRIPTION Codon mRNA TRANSLATION Protein Amino acid 3 5 genetic code 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 x DNA genetic alphabet mRNA 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 1,048,576 Second mRNA base A base (3 end) Second mRNA base Third mRNA
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3 A base (3 end) Second mRNA base Third mRNA Second mRNA base 64 codons 20 aa Non-polar hydrophobic Polar hydrophilic Electrically charged (acidic, basic) Genomic (DNA) Sequence: ATG ACC ATT TTC TGT AAA TTG CAC AAC AAA AAC… etc. mRNA Sequence: AUG ACC AUU UUC UGU AAA UUG CAC AAC AAA AAC… etc. Protein: aa amino acid Sequence: M T I F C K L H N K N… etc. Protein Sequence: met thr ile phe cys lys leu his asn lys asn… etc. Promoter 3 5 Transcription unit DNA Initiation RNA polymerase Start point Template strand of DNA RNA tran- script Unwound DNA Elongation 3 5 3 5 5 3 How is RNA made? 3 5 3 5 Rewound DNA 3 5 3 5 RNA transcript Termination 3 5 5 3 Completed RNA transcript Promoter 3 5 Transcription unit DNA RNA polymerase Start point 5 3 RNA transcription
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4 Promoter 3 5 Transcription unit DNA Initiation RNA polymerase Start point Template strand of DNA RNA tran- script Unwound DNA 3 5 3 5 5 3 RNA polymerase binds to promoter
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course BIO 131 taught by Professor Paz y mino during the Fall '08 term at UMass Dartmouth.

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chapter 17 - Morganucodon oelheri lived 210 million years...

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