chapter 20 - "Juries and judges rely on DNA evidence to...

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1 “Juries and judges rely on DNA evidence to determine the liberty or incarceration, and life or death of thousands of individuals. And it appears that the citizens of the United States are 100 percent supportive of this development. Yet , in the court of public opinion, some 50 percent or more of the US population still Defendant’s blood (D) Blood from defendant’s clothes Victim’s blood (V) more of the US population still doubts or outright denies the reality of biological evolution. We are… more comfortable with DNA’s applications than with its implications.” Sean B. Carrol. 2006. The Making of the Fittest. W. W. Norton & Company, New York. DNA autoradiograph on photo paper (=fingerprint). Southern blot ing of DNA fragments (RFLPs). Image corresponds to bands that hybridize with known radioactive sequences (=probes). DNA Tech & Genomics DNA microarray of 2400 human genes Origin of replication Replication fork Bacteriphage T4 replicating prokaryotic (bacteria) replication eukaryotic replication Termination of replication inside bacteria HIV retrovirus viral replication G 2 OF INTERPHASE lung cell from Newt PROPHASE PROMETAPHASE METAPHASE ANAPHASE TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction Æ mimics cell processes PCR Æ in vitro amplification of genetic material”
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2 Genomic DNA Target sequence 5 3 3 5 Genomic DNA Target sequence 5 3 3 5 5 3 3 5 Primers Cycle 1 yields 2 molecules Denaturation : Heat briefly to separate DNA strands Annealing : Cool to al ow primers to form hydrogen bonds with ends of target sequence Extension : New nucleo- tides DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the 3 end of each primer Genomic DNA Target sequence 5 3 3 5 5 3 3 5 Primers Denaturation : Heat briefly to separate DNA strands Annealing : Cool to al ow primers to form hydrogen bonds with ends of target sequence Extension : Cycle 1 yields 2 molecules DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the 3 end of each primer New nucleo- tides Cycle 2 yields 4 molecules Cycle 3 yields 8 molecules; 2 molecules (in white boxes) match target sequence Bacterium Bacterial chromosome Plasmid Gene inserted into plasmid Cel containing gene of interest Gene of interest DNA of chromosome Recombinant DNA (plasmid) Plasmid put into bacterial cel Recombinant bacterium Host cel grown in culture to form a clone of cel s containing the “cloned” gene of interest DNA cloning Æ production of multiple copies of a DNA segment Protein expressed by gene of interest Protein harvested Gene of interest Copies of gene Basic research on gene Basic research on protein Basic research and various applications Gene for pest resistance inserted into plants Gene used to alter bacteria for cleaning up toxic waste Protein dissolves blood clots in heart
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course BIO 131 taught by Professor Paz y mino during the Fall '08 term at UMass Dartmouth.

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chapter 20 - "Juries and judges rely on DNA evidence to...

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