chapter 26 - Stanley Miller's experiment 1953 CH4 Water...

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1 The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity Swingland, I. R. 2001. Biodiversity, definition of. In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity Vol. 1 (Ed. by S. A. Levin), pp. 377-391. San Diego, California: Academic Press. Water vapor CH 4 Electrode Condenser Cold The Primitive Atmosphere: H, CH4, NH3, H2O lightning Stanley Miller’s experiment 1953 water Cooled water containing organic compounds Æ amino acids, sugars, nucleotide bases Sample for chemical analysis H 2 O Warm water: primitive sea H 2 O CH 4 NH 3 H 2 H 2 O amino acids, sugars, nucleotide bases Glucose Nucleotide bases Glucose-phosphate Glucose-phosphate Phosphorylase Starch Amylase Maltose Maltose Phosphate simple enzymatic metabolism inside microscopic spheres Microscopic spheres made of phospholipids: inside Æ molecular co-ops first “genes” Æ RNA molecules These molecules could have catalyzed their own replication in a prebiotic RNA world The first genetic material and enzymes may both have been RNA Monomers Formation of short RNA polymers: simple “genes” 1 Assembly of a complementary RNA chain, the first step in replication of the original “gene” 2 Template 3 3 Ribozyme (RNA molecule) RNA can make a complementary Nucleotides 5 5 Complementary RNA copy copy of itself
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2 Sugar-phosphate backbone 3 end 5 end Base pair (joined by hydrogen bonding) Old strands Nucleotide about to be added to a The DNA double helix new strand 5 end New strands 3 end 5 end 3 end 5 end Plasma membrane Cytoplasm DNA Ancestral prokaryote Endoplasmic reticulum Nuclear envelope Infolding of plasma membrane Engulfing of aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote Nucleus Cel with nucleus and endomembrane system Mitochondrion Engulfing of photosynthetic prokaryote in some cel s Plastid Mitochondrion Ancestral heterotrophic eukaryote Ancestral photosynthetic eukaryote Land plants Animals Ceno- zoic Origin of solar system and Earth Humans 4 1 23 Multicellular eukaryotes Single-celled eukaryotes Prokaryotes Atmospheric oxygen Proterozoic Eon Archaean Eon Billions of years ago Biodiversity = Biological Diversity ± “Biological Diversity” T. Lovejoy (1980) ± “Biodiversity” E. O. Wilson (1980s) ± Species, genetic, and ecosystem diversity in an area ± including associated abiotic
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chapter 26 - Stanley Miller's experiment 1953 CH4 Water...

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