Making of Modern Europe Notes #1 - Making of Modern Europe...

This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 42 pages.

Making of Modern Europe 10/27/201410/27/14Imperialism°The process of extending one state’s control over another°Formal imperialismdirect rule - annexed territories and subjugate indirect rule - governed through local leaders°Informal imperialismallowed weaker state to maintain its independence while reducing its sovereigntycarved out zone of European sovereignty and privilege °19th century expansion of imperialism 1875-1902: Europeans seized 90% of Africa1870-1900: Small group of European states colonized 1/4 of the world’s lands New imperialism as a new stage of empire buildingImperialism is closely tied with nationalism - this is taking a form into racism in terms of European colonialism°19thcentury empiresAppeared against the backdrop of industrialization, liberal revolutions, and the rise of nation-statesThe need for raw materialsBringing progress to the world (as justification for imperialism)Colonial resistance and rebellion forced Europeans to develop new strategies of ruleoHaitian Revolution compelled British and French to end slavery
oAmerican Revolution encouraged British to grant self-ruleto Canada, Australia, and New ZealandoRebellion in India caused British crown to assume direct control of the colonyGuided more by “settlement and discipline” than independent entrepreneurial activityCreation of new interactions between Europeans and indigenous peoples°The new imperialism and its causesEconomic argumentsoJ. A. Hobson (1902)Imperialism was driven Strategic and nationalist motivesoInternational rivalries fueled the belief that national interests were at stakeoThe French supported imperialism as a means of restoring national honoroThe British worried about German industrialization and losing world marketsoGermans, only recently unified, saw imperialism as the only way to become a great poweroLink between imperialism and nation buildingThe cultural dimensionoDavid Livingston – imperialism would put an end to the east African slave tradeoThe reduction of famine, slavery, and illiteracy through imperialism as a duty of “superior” European civilizationImperial policyoMotives for imperialism overlapped too much to disentangleoLess a matter of long-range planning, more a matter of improvised responses°British Empire in India
“Jewel of British Crown”The British East India CompanyoHad its own military divided into European and Indian divisionsoExtensive control of taxation and trade (including opium)oConstituted a repressive military governmentoOffered privileges to those who allied themselves with the British against othersBritish policy dividedoOne group wanted to “Westernize” IndiaoAnother thought it safer and more practical to defer to local cultureThe Great Mutiny of 1857oBegan when sepoysrefused to use rifle cartridges greased with pork fatoSocial, economic, and political grievanceso

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture