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Anth+2A+Lecture+Notes++16+Jan+2007 - with a sort of...

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Anth 2A Lecture – 16 January 2007 LECTURE NOTES British and American Anthropology, Social Darwinism, and the Colonial Project 19th C. social philosophers and popular audiences wondered why some people had advanced to civilization while others were still primitive to varying degrees. Evolutionism Social Darwinism Progress o Comparative Method Armchair theorizing Lewis Henry Morgan – savagery (lower, middle, upper), barbarism (lower, middle , upper), civilization Attraction of Evolution Exciting intellectual prospects Appealed to European vanities Made progress seem like a law of nature Provided moral justification for High Imperialism o Colonialism o Imperialism o As used in the 19th C., evolutionism was deeply racist Errors of Evolutionism Challenge Response Model of culture change Cultures are continually changing o Societies lumped together in the various stages had little in common beyond criteria used to lump them together Marxism Humanity would pass through successive evolutionary stages beginning
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Unformatted text preview: with a sort of primitive communism followed by exploitation under feudalism 1 then capitalism finally into som out of which a form of communism would eventually emerge in which people would enjoy egalitarian social relations enriched by the productivity made possible by industrialization o No implicit or explicit racism in Marx’s evolutionary theory 20th C. anthropologists rejected evolutionary thinking but their involvement with imperialism continued. British Social Anthropology • Research in the British colonies o Structural functionalism and integration o Synchronic o Research tended to support the colonial administration (Indirect Rule ) American Cultural Anthropology • Research in North America, much of it focused on Native Americans o Diachronic • Salvage anthropology o Research often addressed assimilation and acculturation 2...
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