Test 1 Study Guide - Chapter 1 1. The geological landscape...

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Chapter 1 1. The geological landscape is controlled by intermittent large events with little action in between. Geological processes that have significant effects tend to occur in bunches, nothing happens for a long period of time and then there is a series of events until the system becomes quiet again. 2. They live in these places because they offer things normal areas do not such as a scenic view or rich soil. Large floodplains offer people good soil, inexpensive land, and natural transportation. NO MAJOR REASON 3. A natural event must occur in populated areas in order to be classified as catastrophic because the event must kill or injure large amounts of people or cause significant property damage. In underdeveloped countries, large amounts of people live in potential disaster areas in structures that are very poorly built and are easily destroyed by disasters, causing significant fatalities. In developed countries, many people live in disaster areas but they live in well built structures that can withstand the disaster. However, the disaster does cause significant property damage to the area. 4. Implementing land use planning and reserving land along major active faults for natural parks would reduce the risk significantly. Also …… 5. Generally, people oppose any attempt at land use restrictions because they feel it infringes on their property rights. Also making it harder is that many hazardous areas are already heavily populated, which would make it hard to make them leave. Any attempt would certainly encounter major political and legal opposition. 6. Earthquakes and landslides are two events that could occur due to this factor. For example, the opposite sides of a fault stick until the continual stress eventually causes them to tear apart, causing an earthquake. Another example is that an unstable slope may hang dangerously for a long period of time until some event, such as the water of a large rainstorm soaking in, causes them to be set loose causing a landslide. 7. Too many variables control the behavior of natural events to make them cyclic. Even with cyclic events, overlapping cycles make the resultant extremes noncyclic. Most natural disasters occur when a number of unrelated variables occur in a manner that they reinforce each other. For example, suppose the high water of a hurricane storm surge happens to arrive during the daily high tide, the two events reinforce each other to produce a much higher storm surge. If this occurs in a heavily populated area, the results become much worse. 8. A map showing the Mississippi River at different scales is one example. If the map is with very little detail you may see only large tributaries such the Ohio and Missouri rivers. However, a more detailed map would show smaller tributaries and an even more detailed one would show even more. In geological events, there are many small ones, less frequent larger ones, and an even smaller amount of huge catastrophes. 9.
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course ISP 203B taught by Professor Mackey during the Spring '07 term at Michigan State University.

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Test 1 Study Guide - Chapter 1 1. The geological landscape...

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