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lecture_2 - 1 1 PS 121 LECTURE 2 THE MIDDLE EAST AS AN...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 1 PS 121 LECTURE 2 THE MIDDLE EAST AS AN ARENA OF CONFLICT AND SOURCE OF TERRORISM 1. Instability: Coups, Assassinations, Civil Wars, Revolutions, Inter-State Wars 2. Max Webers Definitions The state defined as possession of the legitimate monopoly of the means of physical coercion Types of Legitimacy: 1) traditional 2) rational-legal; 3) charismatic and 4) ideological 3. In the Absence of Democracy, Regimes Are Especially Vulnerable Unless they Become Repressive; Hence the old formula for Oriental Despotism: Autocracy tempered by Assassination 4. Aprs Moi Le Deluge: Instability After the Ottoman Empire 5. Instability Tends to Promote the Resort to Political Violencethough the Middle East Has No Monopoly on It 2 2 6. Political Violence in the Middle East: Kanan Makiyas accountand Still More 7. Instability Affects the Rest of the World for 2 Reasons: Oil and the Spillover Effect 8. The Growing Threat from WMD 9. Terrorismfrom the French Revolution to Modern Times: 1) State Terrorism; 2) 19 th Century Nihilism and Anarchism: The Propaganda of the Deed; 3) The Mixed Results of Political Terrorism; 4) Poverty Not Always the Source; 5) Targeting the Innocent: Armed Struggle as a Euphemism for Attacks on Civilians; 6) Terrorism as a Tactic; 7) Terrorism as a Religious Duty; Defining and Dealing with Terrorism 10. The Sources of Instability and Violence Poverty and Discontent Shifting Social Structure Frustration and Rage Overpopulation and Unemployment Culture and Religion Regional Hostilities 11. Is Democracy the Answer ? 3 3 In our first class, we saw that while the Middle East exhibits a very considerable diversity in many respects, it also has certain common characteristics that set it apart, notably the important role played by religious belief. In The Crisis of Islam, Bernard Lewis stresses the importance of Islam as a unifying and animating factor in the social, cultural, and political history of the region. In the next lectures in this section of the course, we will examine the history and the links between Islam and politics in some detail. First, however, we need to appreciate something else that is also characteristic of the region its volatility or instability, coupled with an extraordinary degree of political violence, including the resort to terrorism. The moral of this story is that the absence of democracy in the region promotes instability and political violence. Conversely, democratization should bring about much greater stability and lessen the tendency toward political violence. Democracies are more stable because they allow all factions to compete for influence peacefully, allow for majority rule and minority rights, enable non-violent transitions, rule out the use of secret police, kangaroo courts, sanctioned torture, etc., and allow for religious toleration by separating church and state. The tendency for states to go to war with each other is also lessened because democratic states...
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course POLS 121 taught by Professor Lackoff during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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lecture_2 - 1 1 PS 121 LECTURE 2 THE MIDDLE EAST AS AN...

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