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lecture_4 - PS121 Lecture 4 The Middle East Since World War...

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PS121 Lecture 4 The Middle East Since World War I: De- Colonization, Nationalism, and Oil Politics 1. The Middle East Besieged by European Powers Strengthened by the Industrial Revolution and Inspired by Nationalism 2. The Challenge of Western Ideas: Reason, Progress, Liberty, Equality--and Nationalism (from 1798) 3. The Effort to Modernize Islam: Jamal Eddidin al-Afghani (1839-97) and his disciple Mohammed Abduh (1849-1905) 4. British Courtship in WWI: “Lawrence of Arabia” 5. Dividing the Spoils of War: The Sykes- Picot Treaty (1916) 6. The Balfour Declaration (1917) and the League of Nations Mandate for Palestine (1920)
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2 “His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine…” 7. “The Arab Revolt” in Three Waves: Michel Aflaq (1910-1989) and Salah Al-Din Bitar (1912-1980): Ba’athism in Iraq and Syria; George Antonius (1891-1941), “The Arab Awakening” (1938, Palestine); Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-1970) and Nasserism 8. Tensions in World War II 9. The Birth of Israel, War, and the Arab Refugee Problem (1948-49)—to Arabs “ al Naqba ” (the Catastrophe) 10. The Cold War and Internal Strife: 1950- 1990
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3 11. The “Oil Weapon,” OPEC, Responses, Global Warming 12. The Pervasive Sense of Frustration, Failure, and Stagnation Leads to the Rise and Spread of Islamism and Hostility to the West 13. The Rise and Fall of Saddam Hussein – and the Entry of the U.S. into the Region 14. The Iranian Threat
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4 In looking at the earlier modern history of the region we saw how, from small, localized beginnings in the Arabian peninsula, the banner of Islam was carried far and wide, reaching its early modern zenith in the Ottoman Empire and also in Persian and Indian empires to the east. Over many centuries, the movement of expansion fractured and power passed from one group and location to another until in the fifteenth century the Ottoman Empire became the dominant though not the exclusive center of Islamic civilization and politics. In the nineteenth century, this empire began to come under attack, and in the early twentieth century it came unraveled. Energized by the Industrial Revolution and the rise of nationalism and imperialism, European powers took over much of its territory, creating states that they sought to control. Arab, Turkish, and Persian nationalism emerged as a new and powerful counterforce to the traditional attachment to Islam alone. Zionism, another form of nationalism, led to a Jewish effort to recreate a homeland, endorsed by Britain in 1917 and then by the League of Nations, which awarded Britain a mandate over Palestine. After World War II, a UN resolution led to the emergence of Israel. Egypt under Nasser sought but ultimately failed to forge pan-Arab unity in opposition to imperialism
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lecture_4 - PS121 Lecture 4 The Middle East Since World War...

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