ps121lec7asyriairaqlibya

ps121lec7asyriairaqlibya - 1 PS121Lecture7a (Authoritarian...

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1 PS121Lecture7a (Authoritarian States continued) Authoritarian-Dictatorial: Syria Independent since 1943 Main Cities Damascus, Aleppo 75 percent Sunni; Alawites 12 percent Ba’ath (Arab Socialist Resurrection Party founded by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar) takes power in 1963; Hafez al-Assad seizes power in the 1970 “Corrective Revolution”; succeeded 2000 by his son Dr. Bashar el- Assad Main current political party: National Progressive Front (based on Ba’ath Party)
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2 Wars with Israel; intervention in Lebanon from 1976; brief union with Egypt (1958-61); destruction of Muslim Brotherhood in Hama Autocracy via Control of the Military and Secret Police--and Economic Stagnation Background: Following the breakup of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, Syria was administered by the French until independence in 1946. In the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel. Since 1976, Syrian troops have been stationed in Lebanon, ostensibly in a peacekeeping capacity. Talks with Israel over the return of the Golan Heights have recently been revived. Area: total: 185,180 sq km land: 184,050 sq km water: 1,130 sq km note: includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory Area - comparative: slightly larger than North Dakota Land boundaries: total: 2,253 km border countries: Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km Land use: arable land: 28% permanent crops: 4% permanent pastures: 43% forests and woodland: 3% other: 22% (1993 est.) Irrigated land: 9,060 sq km (1993 est.) Population: 16,305,659 note: in addition, there are about 38,200 people living in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights - 18,200 Arabs (16,500 Druze and 1,700 Alawites) and about 20,000 Israeli settlers (July 2000 est.)
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3 Age structure: 0-14 years: 41% (male 3,410,417; female 3,210,215) 15-64 years: 56% (male 4,688,967; female 4,476,022) 65 years and over: 3% (male 254,448; female 265,590) (2000 est.) Population growth rate: 2.58% (2000 est.) Ethnic groups: Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7% Religions: Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects 16%, Christian (various sects) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo) Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 70.8% male: 85.7% female: 55.8% (1997 est.) About half of Syria’s land is cultivable, and it is one of the few states in the region that has more arable land available. Most of its water comes from the Euphrates and underground springs and it could import water from neighboring Turkey. So it has considerable unexploited agricultural potential, even without recovering the Golan Heights, now occupied by Israel, which is farming this area and cultivating vineyards very successfully. Oil was discovered in the northeast, allowing Syria to avoid importing oil. Still, it is burdened by high population growth (3.5 % per year), a high poverty rate, and a large foreign debt. It owes Russia alone $15 billion. The Syrian economy has been largely stagnant, even though in 1990 the
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ps121lec7asyriairaqlibya - 1 PS121Lecture7a (Authoritarian...

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