ps121lec10turkeylebanon

ps121lec10turkeylebanon - 1 Comparing Regimes (4):...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Comparing Regimes (4): Democracies: Lebanon, Turkey, and Israel 1. Lebanon (population 3.5 million) Religions: Muslim 70% (including Shi'a, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or 2 Nusayri), Christian 30% (including Orthodox Christian, Catholic, Protestant), Jewish NEGL% Economy Lebanon Top of Page Economy - overview: The 1975-91 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Peace enabled the central government to restore control in Beirut, begin collecting taxes, and regain access to key port and government facilities. Economic recovery was helped by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers. Family remittances, banking services, manufactured and farm exports, and international aid provided the main sources of foreign exchange. Lebanon's economy made impressive gains since the launch in 1993 of "Horizon 2000," the government's $20 billion reconstruction program. Real GDP grew 8% in 1994, 7% in 1995, 4% in 1996 and in 1997, but slowed to 1.2% in 1998, -1.6% in 1999, -0.6% in 2000, 0.8% in 2001, and 1.5% in 2002. During the 1990s annual inflation fell to almost 0% from more than 100%. Lebanon has rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure. The government nonetheless 3 faces serious challenges in the economic arena. It has funded reconstruction by borrowing heavily - mostly from domestic banks. In order to reduce the ballooning national debt, the re-installed HARIRI government began an economic austerity program to rein in government expenditures, increase revenue collection, and privatize state enterprises. The HARIRI government met with international donors at the Paris II conference in November 2002 to seek bilateral assistance restructuring its domestic debt at lower rates of interest. While privatization of state-owned enterprises had not occurred by the end of 2002, the government had successfully avoided a currency devaluation and debt default in 2002. Lebanon is a small country, smaller in size than Connecticut, with a population of 3.9million, 70% Muslim (40-45% Shiite), 30% Christian. From 1860 onward, France created an autonomous enclave there in the north--Mount Lebanon--to protect Maronite Christians even though, like the rest of Lebanon, it was nominally within the Ottoman Empire. Between 1861 and 1915 Mount Lebanon was inhabited mainly by Maronite Christiansa sect which recognizes the papacy but was founded by a fifth-century monk named Maron. It was also inhabited by Druze, a Muslim sect spread over several countries. Mount Lebanon had come into existence as a separate enclave after a horrific massacre of Christians by Druze . The French intervened at that point to protect the Maronites....
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ps121lec10turkeylebanon - 1 Comparing Regimes (4):...

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