1-18-08 - dshaw@austin.utexas.edu Gov 325 1-22-08 Party...

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dshaw@austin.utexas.edu Gov 325 1-22-08 Party system differentiation A) Systemic Orientation a. Contesting elections and winning office (American case) b. Or policy oriented B) Organizational Structure a. Organizational requirements i. Btwn task specific parties vs parties with an organizational imperative 1. Set up to contest elections or is the party essentially an organizational expression of a particular group or set of people in society, the party organization gives a broader representation to a wide group of people in society, such as a Workers party, party its self is meant to represent a particular group in elections, not necessarily to win an election 2. Dispersion of power or authority a. Is power hierarchical arranged, such as military organization or are power centers dispersed through out the party, i. Dispersed org. EX: American party, who’s higher or lower a state chair or a national representative, Bill Clinton is a Power center for Dem party, but he has no formal role in party ii. Hierarchy (broad base upper) Vs. Stratarachy (lots of power centers horizontal or even circular flow) 3. Career patterns a. Whether you have a system where you work your way up the party ladder or whether the party organization allows lateral entry, is the party organization Permeable, or do you have to come from bottom up? C) Party Activity Rates a. How much does the party do b. And how frequently does the party engage in these activities 1
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c. Do the parties operate continually, or do they just show up every few years and contest elections D) Internal processes a. Either internal processes matter or don’t matters E) Form of competition a. The goals of competition i. As a political party what do you want to do? Some just want to impact policy, others wish to change governing personal b. The sites of competition i. Are elections the way in which you determine who controls public policy or is it governing coalitions formed after elections, or maybe the beauracy Typology of Party Systems Can stem from above criteria but can be different A) Spatial typology Downs a. Steals form economic theory: political parties represent or dependant upon the distributions of preferences amongst a given society i. This theory assumes that political parties are rational, and only want to win elections B) Electoral Structure Duverger / Lijphardt a. The central Idea is that the party system that exists reflects the electoral arrangements and structural design of that country i. SMSP – Single Member Simple Plurality 1. AKA First past the post (FPTP) = American elections are examples the idea is you elect one rep to represent a district, chosen by getting one more vote than the next highest vote getter 2. Duverger architect of SMSP a. Duverger’s law : if you have SMSP you will get a 2 party system ii. PR – Proportional Representation 2
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1. Multiple members selected from district, and the number of reps from a given party is determined by the number of votes gotten by that party in the
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1-18-08 - dshaw@austin.utexas.edu Gov 325 1-22-08 Party...

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