psych 230 study guide for test 2

psych 230 study guide for test 2 - Study Guide for Exam#2...

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Study Guide for Exam #2 in Psychology 230 1. Perceptual Development a. Describe the methods used to study perception in infants. What do these methods tell us? Habituation- A simple form of learning that involves learning not to respond to a repeated stimulus: learning to be bored by the familiar o Researchers can use this process to uncover what is going on inside the infant’s mind o This procedure can be used to test for discrimination of stimuli by all the senses-vision, audition, touch, and even taste and smell. Preferential Looking o Researchers can present an infant with two stimului at the same time and measure the length of time the infant spends looking at each. o If the infant looks equally long at the two stimuli. .then it is unclear what researchers can conclude o It is also possible that infants have a preference but do not display it with preferential looking. Evoked Potentials o Researchers can get an idea of how the brain responds to stimulation by measuring its electrical activity with small metal disks (electrodes) attached to the skin’s surface. Operant Conditioning o Humans will repeat a response that has a pleasant consequence Suck faster or slower or to turn the head to the side when a certain stimulus is presented if they are reinforced for that response. b. What kinds of patterns can newborns see? When can they see patterns like adults? Young infants are attracted to patterns that have a large amount of light-dark transition or contour ; they are responsive to sharp boundaries between light and dark areas Young infants are attracted to movement , especially the onset of motion. Newborns can and do track a moving target with their eyes, although their tracking at first is imprecise and likely to falter unless the target is moving slowly. Attractive and interesting targets, such as faces, elicit more visual tracking than other targets, look longer at at moving objects than those of stationary ones. Young infants seem to be attracted to moderately complex patterns. They prefer a clear pattern (for example, a bold checkerboard pattern) to either a blank stimulus or an elaborate one such as a page from the New York Times. One special pattern that has garnered much attention from researchers is the human face. Early research showing that young infants preferred to look at schematic drawings of faces rather than other patterned stimuli. Human faces have all three of thes physical properties. c. What preferences for smell and taste do infants have? Be able to tell by examples what an infant may perceive with smell and taste. At birth, babies can clearly distinguish sweet, bitter, and sour tastes and show a preference for sweets. Indeed, sugar water- but not plain water-seems to have a marvelous ability to calm even premature babies and can help them cope with painful events such as needle pricks. Their facial expressions become increasingly pronounced as a solution becomes sweeter or more bitter, suggesting that
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psych 230 study guide for test 2 - Study Guide for Exam#2...

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