Midterm - Politics in the U.S. - Midterm Chapter One...

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Chapter One Politics – the study of who gets what when Thomas Hobbes – wrote Leviathan in 1651; argued that humans are by nature selfish and live in a “state of nature.” They give up some freedom to a single ruler/authority to protect them from animal-like behavior. Without government, life would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” Monarchy – ruling family rules Aristocracy – the richest class rules Democracy – the people rule John Locke – government’s primary responsibility is to preserve private property ‘Direct democracy’ – every citizen has an equal veto on every issue ‘Indirect democracy’ – ‘representative democracy’ – ‘Republic’ – representatives, elected by the citizens, vote on issues; more practical than direct democracy Changes in America - the population is growing (from 4 mil to almost 300 mil); originally Puritan/Protestant, now extremely ethnic (a racial melting pot); average age is much older and there is a much higher standard of living; the size of the average family has decreased, more single parents Conservative – government is best when it governs the least; government can change slowly; private sector should handle domestic issues; fiscally responsible Liberal – favors extensive government involvement in the economy and in social services; takes an activist role in protecting the rights of people Libertarian – favors a free market economy and no government interference in personal liberties Chapter Two Problems of the Articles of Confederation – States had way too much power; there was no central government; no judicial system; no central taxing; a lot of taxes and differences (currency) when going between states; trade with foreign nations was sketchy because of each state identifying itself as a different state; no executive or judiciary branch; lots of border disputes Articles of Confederation – created a loose “league of friendship” among the 13 former colonies; each state retained its independence and ability to govern within its territories; worked well during the revolutionary war, but wasn’t a good long term government Shay’s Rebellion – forced leaders to acknowledge and deal with the shortcomings of the U.S Virginia Plan – favored by the larger states; powerful central government with three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative; the legislative had two houses with one house elected directly, and the other chosen by state legislature; it also had the power to select the executive and judiciary heads/participants New Jersey Plan – favored by the smaller states; wanted the Articles of Confederation strengthened instead of replacing them; created a one house legislature in which each state received one vote; also gave this Congress the power to raise revenue from duties and postal service; also created a Supreme Court Great Compromise Connecticut Plan – duel houses, one directly elected and based
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Midterm - Politics in the U.S. - Midterm Chapter One...

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