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Introduction of Solid Waste ManagementAmerican cities lacked organized public works for street cleaning, refuse collection, water treatment, and human waste removal until the early 1800s (Louis, 2004). In effects to handle recurrent epidemics solid waste management came into play. Solid waste management protects the public health and environment of people. Methods for handling the repeated epidemics were with water treatment, sewerage works, and sanitary engineer work for regional public health authorities. Over the years we have learned that solid waste not only affects human health and the environment but it also preserves or destroys natural resources and climate change. “The 1960s are remembered as the decade of early environmentalism” (Liu, Costanza, Farber, Troy, 2010). There are various sources of solid waste: animal waste, hazardous waste, industrial, medical, food waste, household waste, and non-hazardous waste. In 2008, EPA provided a final ruling of the definition of Solid Waste. The definition is designed to ensure it protects human health and the environment from the mismanagement of hazardous secondary materials intended for recycling, while promoting sustainability through the encouragement of safe and environmentally responsible recycling of such materials (EPA, 2015).The management of solid waste requires an understanding of treatment and disposal options; legal aspect, such as policy development, enforcement, regulation, reporting, and the transportation of waste (Woodson, ND). About 1% of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in the U.S. is household hazardous waste (HHW) a fraction that corresponds closely with what is being produced in other developedcountries (Massawe, Legleu, Vasul, Brandon, Shelden, 2014). In 2006, U.S. residents, business, and commercial institutions generated more than 251 million tons of MSW per year; this enormous amount of waste is both hazardous and non-hazardous (Massawe, Legleu, Vasul,
Brandon, Shelden, 2014). Solid waste management in the United States is a system comprised of regulatory, administrative, market, technology, and social subcomponents. This management system promotes and supports residential, commercial, and governmental efforts to reduce waste,prevents future waste disposal problems by establishing effective standards, and cleans up areas where wastes may have spilled, leaked or been improperly disposed of (EPA, 2014). Solid wastemanagement is a local responsibility, centered on nearby municipal dumps in most cases. Most cities and towns are facing population growth that puts pressure on local communities’ resistanceto locate landfill facilities in their neighborhoods and this strongly affects the key infrastructure that supports the safety and sustainable waste disposal management. Locally, solid waste is managed by street seeping, refuse collection, transportation, resource recovery and disposal.