CCC_Midterm

CCC_Midterm - Edward Hall Beyond Culture 1. Monochronic...

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Edward Hall – Beyond Culture 1. Monochronic Time vs. Polychronic Time- o Monochronic Time (M – Time) and Polychronic Time (P-Time) represent two variant solutions to the use of both time and space as organizing frames for activities. o M-time emphasizes schedules, segmentation, and promptness. o Western societies are largely comprised of M-Time. o M-Times isolates people into groups of two or three, arbitrary and imposed. o P-Time emphasizes several things happening at once, is less tangible than M-Time, and stresses the involvement of people and completion of transactions rather than adherence to present schedules. o P-type weakness lies in their extreme dependency on the “head man” to handle contingencies and stay on top of things. M- Type groups, tend to grow large, therefore turning inwards and grow rigid and apt to lose sight of the original purpose. 2. Low-Context vs. High-Context Culture and Communication Characteristics of High Context Cultures: o Homogenous o Tight knit, people belong o Implicit – internalized within each person o Stable o Based on history o Slow to change o Fast and economical communication o Syncing/ people in rhythm with one another o Associative-small groups that associate with one another. o Collectivists o Less extensions- smaller system o Ex: Asia, Middle East, Africa Characteristics of Low Context Cultures: o Heterogeneous o Communications –don’t unify o Changed easily and rapidly o Fragment culture o Adaptable o Instable o Schitzoid o Explicit o More extensions- larger system o Less syncing
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o Abstract rather than associative o Can become wieldy and lends itself to manipulation o Fragile bonds between people o Ex: Germany, Switzerland 3. Abstractive vs. Associative Culture o Associative High Context Small, intimate groups o Abstractive (Selected) Low Context Extract info from explicit Only words are relevant 4. Extension Systems When looking at the extension process, keep in mind that what we examine is one of several ways of meeting environmental challenges. No organism can survive without altering its environment in some way. Altering the environment can be broken down into two complementary processes, externalizing and internalizing. Extensional systems frequently become rigid and difficult to change. Extension transference is the term given to the common intellectual maneuver in which the extension is confused with or takes the place of the process extended. Extension transference takes many forms. Extensions often permit man to solve problems in satisfactory ways, to evolve and adapt at great speeds without changing the basic structure of his body. It permits man to examine and perfect what is inside the head. A variation of the extension-transference theme is that if the ET
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course AN 101 taught by Professor Crouch during the Fall '06 term at American.

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CCC_Midterm - Edward Hall Beyond Culture 1. Monochronic...

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