Test1Study Guide

Test1Study Guide - Understanding Music Test 1 Study Guide...

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Understanding Music – Test 1 Study Guide Active listening Hearing not paying attention? Roar of an air conditioner or hum of a refrigerator Conversation around you in a restaurant Listening Requires active attention What would you listen for in music? Listen to individual instruments Listen to lyrics and contemplate their meaning Figure out form and organization of music Listen to Goldman What do you hear? What is music? Humanly patterned sound created to be performed or listen to Do animals make music? Human Ear can hear between 20Hz and 20,000Hz Humans generally hear sound waves whose frequencies are between 20 and 20,000 Hz. Below 20 Hz, sounds are referred to as infrasonic, and above 20,000 Hz as ultrasonic. infrasonic (about 20 Hz) < human hearing < ultrasonic (about 20,000 Hz) We know a great deal about human hearing, but what about the hearing of large whales? Currently, we do not have detailed audiograms for the larger, baleen whales (note: we do have information on the hearing of smaller porpoises and dolphins from research with captive animals). Instead, we assume whales can hear the range of sounds they produce. The figure below compares human vocalizations with the sounds baleen whales are known to produce: The Decibel Scale If the amplitude of a sound is increased in a series of equal steps, the loudness of the sound will increase in steps which are perceived as successively smaller. Sound intensity is generally described using logarithmic units called decibels (dB). On the decibel scale, everything refers to power, which is (amplitude)2 ; 0.0 dB corresponds to about the normal threshold of hearing and 130 dB to the point where sound becomes painful to humans. threshold of hearing - 0 dB
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whisper at 1 meter - 20 dB normal conversation - 60 dB jet engine - 140 dB painful to human - 130 dB Warning: noise levels cited in air do not equal underwater levels for reasons that will be described in the following sections. Why use the decibel scale? Because sound "loudness" varies exponentially, we'd have to deal with a lot of zeros when doing computations involving the parameters of sound, and we'd have to multiply numbers rather than simply add and subtract them. By using the decibel scale, calculations are simplified and relative values relate more closely to perception. Cognitive - What do you know about this music identify the instruments, style of music, composer? Emotional - How does it make you feel sad, happy, funny? Spiritual - Do you have any spiritual insights or meditations from the music? Class 2: Music in Society
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Test1Study Guide - Understanding Music Test 1 Study Guide...

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