lecture 16

lecture 16 - Fri. 2/15/08 Hist2B: lecture 16 Europe's rise...

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Fri. 2/15/08 Hist2B: lecture 16 Europe’s rise and expansions Europe’s interstate competition almost demanded overseas imperialism - A battle for outside resources - Europe’s arms race was about massive standing armies and navies - Dominant states spent 70-90% of their revenue on their war machines - Gold, silver, cash crops from colonies balanced state finances - Overseas colonial conquests by one state forced others to follow – or fall behind - Overseas colonies became markers of national status Why no such military-fiscal escalation occurred elsewhere? - Ottomans and Chinese did not face serious external threats that required it (no serious enemies) - Ottomans: did not adapt infantry drill; navy remained oar-powered; financial system relied on taxes on booty (Quran prohibited lending at interest) - China used its modern military arsenal against nomadic groups of central Asia o Nomadic power destroyed by 1700s Rise of capitalism - Nature of capitalism (more profits) o Private parties seek profit in free markets, undisturbed by governments or nobility o Supply and demand determines prices
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lecture 16 - Fri. 2/15/08 Hist2B: lecture 16 Europe's rise...

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