Indian HistoryLecture 25- British India IIIndian indentured migration Economic situation in India in 1830s: India was a principal exporter of textiles, became largest importer of textile in the worldOne of the most sordid chapters in British India is the Opium Trade (not discussed much by historians)1839-1842 First Opium War 1856-1860 Second Opium WarCity of Bombay built on back of opium trade, Parsis from Iran (Zoroastrians) are a minority in India, involved in opium trade (middlemen) \industrial houses High demand in Europe for Chinese goods, China got silver in return but Britain was on the gold standardBritain had to purchase silver, then send it to China for their goodsGrow opium in India and trade it with China instead of sending silver to China 1729, Chinese emperor bans opium sale\use British merchants often smuggled opium into China from India 1838, 1400 tons of opium smuggled into China- 50-80 million addicts in China China issues an embargo and confiscates foreign goods in the ports, leads to 1839 Opium WarBritish East India Company army enters CantonBeginning in 1830s, substantial Indian indentured migration occursLargely peasants (from interior) do not know where they are goingBoard a ship on the coast, Guyana\Jamaica\Fiji\Malaysia\South Africa\Trinidad are all
Resonates even today, Indians majority population in some areasOften work on sugar plantations but do not know that they are going to do this Comes to a stop in 1917 when Indian nationalists demand that this stops, angry at Indian exploitation (take place of slaves)Illiterate\had no protection (British slavery abolished in 1830s)Sign contract to work for five yearsSeveral million people leave India as indentured laborers Go to Mauritius\British Caribbean, show dire economic prospects in India 1880s-1890s, India sees many famines (especially in the south\Deccan)Several million people die Economic situation in India deteriorates under British rule Reasons for the rebellion of 1857-58May 1857, see a huge rebellion called the Sepoy Mutiny (foot soldier)Suggests that British rule was legitimate, if not, mutiny not good term= Indian Rebellion of 1857 is better Many reasons for the rebellion, breaks out in north India, near Delhi (100thanniversary of Plassey, a coincidence\millenarian vision?)Older historians argue that there was one reason, now know that there were manyNew rifles issued to the sepoys, largely Muslims\Hindus, had to bite off cartridge to load it Greased with beef fat or pork fat, offended religious sensibilities of IndiansNow seen as just the catalyst Growing racial pride of British important
By 1820s very clear that British view themselves as better than the Brahmans (out Brahman Brahmans, work in the system to place them above Indians), racist to Indians
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 9 pages?
History, British Raj, British India, British East India, Indian Rebellion of 1857