Exam 3 Identifications - Identifications Nicolaus...

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IdentificationsDefinitionsNicolaus Copernicus(1473-1543) He was a Polish Astronomer. He was known as the father of astronomy. He showed that the planets revolved around the sun (heliocentric solar system) instead of the planets revolving around earth. His discovery set the stage for modern astronomy. Rene Descartes(1600s) He was a French Philosopher and Mathematician. He is known as the father of modern philosophy. He introduced the concept that defined the nature of existence as “I think; therefore I am”. He combined math and philosophy to make greater strides in his field and set the stagefor modern philosophersPhilosophes(1700s) It is French for Philosophers. This iswhat the French Intellectuals called themselves during the Enlightenment period. They studied the many areas of learning, including philosophy, history, science, politics, economics, and social issues. They had a critical eye and looked for weaknesses and failures that needed improvement. They promoted a "republic of letters" that crossed national boundariesand allowed intellectuals to freely exchange books and ideas. They strongly endorsed progress and tolerance, and distrusted organized religion and feudal institutions. Their works influenced the future of all of France’s works.Voltaire(1700s) He was a French philosopher and author. He wrote Dictionnaire philosophique, an encyclopedic dictionary embracing the concepts of Enlightenment and rejecting the ideas of the Roman Catholic Church. His works further angeredthe church and lead to him being exiled despite controversy during his lifetime, is
widely considered one of France's greatest Enlightenment writers and had inspired many future French writers. Jean-Jaques Rousseau(1700s) He was a Swiss Philosopher Saw himself as a Philosophe. He was known as one of the most influential thinkers during the 18th-century European Enlightenment period. His first philosophical work, A Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, discussed how science and arts had causedthe corruption of virtue and morality. Rousseau was also a composer and music theorist.Tennis Court Oath(Jun 20th1789) In Versallies France, The Third Estate, which represent commoners and the lower clergy, meet on the Jeu de Paume,an indoor tennis court, in defiance of King Louis XVI’s order to disperse. They took a historic oath not to disband until a new French constitution had been adopted. This lead to them being declared as the National Assembly. The kings response to this lead to the storming of the Bastille–a state prison where they believed ammunition was stored–it startedthe French Revolution.

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Term
Fall
Professor
WROMER
Tags
History, Nicolaus Copernicus, Voltaire, Joseph Stalin, World War II, Russian Communist Party

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