Lecture4 - Chapter 8: Introducing Acids and Bases...

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Chapter 8: Introducing Acids and Bases Definitions in aqueous chemistry Acid: a substance that increases the concentration of [H + ] Base: a substance that increases the concentration of [OH - ] Brønsted and Lowry Acid: a [H + ] donor Base: a [H+] acceptor Lewis definition Acid: an electron-pair acceptor Base: an electron-pair donor
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Salts Salt is a substance formed as a result of an acid-base reaction. It is usually a strong electrolyte in water. NH 4 OH + HCl Æ H 2 O + NH 4 Cl salt NH 4 Cl (s) Æ NH 4 + (aq) + Cl - (aq)
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Examples of Salts NaCl ( HCl + NaOH -> NaCl + H 2 O) NaClO 4 (HClO 4 + NaOH -> NaClO 4 + H 2 O) K 2 SO 4 (2KOH + H 2 SO 4 -> K 2 SO 4 + 2H 2 O) NaNO 3 (NaOH + HNO 3 -> NaNO 3 + H 2 O) CH 3 COONa (CH 3 COOH + NaOH -> CH 3 COONa + H 2 O)
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Conjugate acids and conjugate bases A conjugate base of a strong acid is a weak base A conjugate acid of a strong base is a weak acid
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Autoprotolysis of water and PH scale Autoprotolysis of water: H 2 O + H 2 O ' H 3 O + + OH - hydronium ion hydroxide ion H 2 O ' H + + OH - K w = [H + ][OH - ] = 1.0 x 10 -14 @ 25 o C x 2 = 1.0 x 10 -14 ; x = 1.0 x 10 -7 [H + ] = [OH - ] = 1.0 x 10 -7 M in pure water pH = -log[H + ] pH = 7 (pure water)
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pH scales An acidic solution has a pH below 7, and a basic solution has a pH above 7 [H + ] = 1 x 10 -3 M => pH = -log(1 x 10 -3 ) = 3 [H + ] = 1.0 x 10 -11 M => pH = -log(1.0 x 10 -11 ) = 11 [H + ] = 3.74 x 10 -5 M => pH = -log(3.74 x 10 -5 ) = 4.427
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- ], [H + ], and pH What is concentration of OH - if [H + ] = 1.0 x 10 -3 M at 25 o C K w = [OH - ][H + ] [OH - ] = K w /[H + ] 1.0 x 10 -14 /1.0 x 10 -3 = 1.0 x 10 -11 M Find the pH of 5.10 x 10 -4 M KOH aqueous solution. [H
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course CHEM 2114 taught by Professor Wi during the Spring '08 term at Virginia Tech.

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Lecture4 - Chapter 8: Introducing Acids and Bases...

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