OverviewThis chapter focusses on implementing municipal projects to make operations more energy efficient or to utilise energy from renewable sources. Technical aspects are not covered here, but are discussed in other sections of the manual. Depending on the local priorities and available resources a broad range of projects can be implemented including: yInvestment projects into energy efficiency in municipal buildings and facilities;yIntroduction of an Energy Management System;yPilot projects of renewable energy systems; andyStaff campaigns to reduce energy consumption.All such projects require budgets and expertise that is often not available within the municipal administration.Objectives and benefits The principle goal of such projects is to reduce the carbon emissions of the municipality and to contribute to achieving sustainable energy targets that several municipalities have set for themselves. The municipal operations only use a fraction of the energy consumed in a municipality. Large scale reductions of GHG emissions can only be achieved if communities and businesses implement GHG reduction projects. It is therefore important to use municipal projects as learning opportunities for both municipal officials and the public; and for showcasing the municipality as leading by example. An additional objective of projects is stimulating the local economy by establishing or strengthening a sustainable energy sector, as well as creating jobs. To maximise learning, municipal officials must be involved at all stages of the project planning and implementation process. Lessons learnt should feed into policy development with the objective to stimulate sustainable energy interventions by private and public investors in the municipal area.Typical learning opportunities for energy efficiency projects include: yBaseline assessment of energy consumption of a building or facility, yIdentification of measures to reduce energy consumption, yDrafting of Business Plan for the measures; yProcurement and implementation of measures; andyMonitoring and validation of energy savings. Figure 1: Energy Efficiency staff campaign posters Source: Energy Office eThekwini MunicipalityProcesses and finances for implementing municipal projects
Governance and Legislation356The graphs below show typical graphs that are part of the baseline assessment of a building. For renewable energy installations typical learning opportunities include:yIdentification of suitable technologies;yDrafting of Business Plan for the measures; ySpecification and procurement of renewable energy installations; yIntegration of generated electricity into the municipal grid;yOperating and maintenance of installations; andyMonitoring of electricity generation that can be variable as in case of solar PV.