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PSYCHOLOGY TEST 3 REVIEW I. Sexuality and Gender a. Gender Stereotyping – judgments about individual members of a group on the basis of their membership in that group i. Sexual harassment ii. sexism – negative attitudes and behavior toward a person based on that person’s gender b. Gender roles – the set of expectations, defined by a particular society, that indicate what is appropriate behavior for men and women c. Gender schema – a mental framework that organizes and guides a child’s understanding of information relevant to gender i. On the basis of what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior for male and females, children begin to behave in ways that reflect society’s gender roles d. Glass ceiling – an invisible barrier within an organization that, because of gender discrimination, may prevent women from being promoted beyond a certain level i. Male stereotypes are typically more positive than female stereotypes ii. Gender stereotypes limit both women’s and men’s behavior and ultimately lead to the unfortunate consequence of preferential treatment of men e. Gender differences i. Personality factors i. Degrees of aggressiveness ii. Self-esteem iii. Verbal and non-verbal communication styles ii. Cognitive skills i. Minimal ii. We still do not have the full story on gender differences in cognitive abilities f. Androgynous – characterized by gender roles that encompass psychological and behavioral traits thought typical of both sexes i. Proposes that differences should be based on choices, freely made, of the best human characteristics, not on artificially restricted inventory of characteristics deemed by society to be appropriate only for men or only for women g. Anorgasmic – a female’s lack of orgasm i. Primary – woman has never experienced an orgasm ii. Secondary – woman is capable of orgasm but only under certain conditions h. Bisexual – persons who are sexually attracted to people of the same sex and the other sex i. Transsexual – people who they believe they were born with the body of the other gender j. Sexual Response phases i. Excitement phase – an arousing stimulus begins a sequence that prepares the genitals for sexual intercourse ii. Plateau phase – the maximum level of sexual arousal is attained as the penis and clitoris swell with blood, and the body prepares for the orgasm iii.
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