Learning and Memory Addiction

Learning and Memory Addiction - Learning and Memory...

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Learning and Memory Addiction 21/05/2007 19:03:00 Lashley and the search for the “Engram” Lashley began the neurobiology of learning and memory The “Engram” is the hypothetical physical substrate of memory Did hundreds of experiments in rats and monkeys where he trained them on a  particular task and then made lesions Most were focused on the cortex Lashley’s search for the engram Equipotentiality-all parts of the cortex contribute equally to the complex  behaviors (e.g., learning) Mass action: cortex works as whole; more cortex removed=greater deficit Problems with Lashley Lashley (and most others) didn’t think that the task you used mattered; his  tasks were so complex they required the whole brain He also focused on the cortical association areas which we still don’t think  have very specific roles in memory As improved learning and memory tasks became available memory appeared  more localized Pavlovian conditioning review-stimuli presented regardless of what subject does  (not contingent on subject response) Circuit for fear conditioning The probably location of the changes in synaptic strength produced by the  classically conditioned emotional response that results from paring a tone  with a foot shock Central nucleus=output of fear/unlearned fear  Basolateral/lateral nucleus=learned fear Memory phases are a recurring theme Memory terminology based on information processing models e.g., serial  model Stimulus sensory short-term memory (STM) long-term memory(LTM)
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o Information can be lost in all three steps o Through rehearsal can be stored in long-term memory and can  retrieved from long-term memory to short term memory Can test these models in brain damaged subjects Amnesia  Partial or total loss of memory , usually resulting from shock, psychological  disturbance, brain injury, or illness Organic caused by shock, brain injury, illness o Hypoxic episode, herpes encephalitis o Epilepsy, brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease Psychogenic caused by psychological trauma o Dissociative disorders o Psychogenic fugue o Multiple personality disorder Amnesia can be anterograde or retrograde o Anterograde amnesia inability to learn anything new since the time of  the trauma (usually organic) o Retrograde amnesia loss of memory for events prior to the time of the  trauma (psychogenic or organic) Henry M (HM) Most famous case reported by Scoville and Milner (1857) Scoville did the surgeries for psychosis but didn’t work, so tried it for epilepsy  on about 30 patients. Patients studied by Breanda Milner
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSYC 106 taught by Professor Sage during the Spring '07 term at UCSD.

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Learning and Memory Addiction - Learning and Memory...

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